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Castellane from the Middle Ages to nowadays

​The lineage of Castellane

In 1036 was born first baron de Castellane line since it takes the name of his city: "Boniface 1 of Petra Castellana". It is the beginning of the feudal peak of the barons de Castellane, and for two centuries, there is a profusion of buildings, monuments, extensions. Castellane becomes a powerful city. It is worth noting that the dates of the reigns of 1 Boniface, Boniface II and Boniface III cannot be determined exactly, the documents from the era are not precise enough or numerous enough.In 1036, Saint-Victor is under construction at the foot of the rock, in what would become the village. Notre-Dame-du-Plan is parish church. The Roc, Petra Castellana, are strengthened, inhabited. Notre-Dame-du-Roc is the Church of the castle of the Lords of Castellane. Fortifications of all the buildings at that time, it remains today as the bases. What we can see at the moment are rebuilt or reworked in the same locations, later. Thus the visible Petra Castellana fortifications date to the first half of the 12th century, just as, incidentally, the remains of Saint - André of the Roc. Castellane takes such importance from the religious point of view that the Abbot Izarn, then Abbot of Saint-Victor in Marseille and sanctified later, will honour his Episcopal presence the city: he will visit Ville resort of the Lord of Demandolx, where he prays that the Castle be spared by lightning. 'Ville' will be born "Demandolx", name of the Lord of the place.
In 1050, Pont du Roc is restored. Paradoxically it would seem that there was at that time a start to decommissioning of Petra Castellana for the benefit of the village around Saint Victor. But they look rather for an extension of Castellane and an increase in its population.
1095: the brother of 1st Boniface, Pierre, participated in the first crusade, fighting at Antioch and perishes in Palestine. The grateful city stamped in 1864 a bronze plaque on the Obelisk of the fountain of the place Marcel Sauvaire.
In 1110, the earls of Arles and Avignon split to create the Earldom of Forcalquier and the Earldom of Provence including the heir is Raymond Béranger, earl of Barcelona.
In 1118, is the creation of the order of the Temple, which will be of great importance in the region.
In 1122, it is mentioned that Notre-Dame-du-Plan is a result Priory.
In 1150, Guillaume II, last earl of Forcalquier and Lord of Manosque is at war against the earls of Provence, of Barcelona and Kings of Aragon; He will fight against the three sovereigns that will follow during his reign: all three will want to unify the Provence, the Kingdom is only a juxtaposition of only conscious fiefs of their only independence (Aragon Raymond III, 1 Alphonse then Alphonse II...) this war will end in 1209, at the advent of Raymond Béranger V who meet the two earls.

Petra Castellana in decline

In 1156, the Lords of Castellane, forts of their power, down reside not far from Saint-Victor, which we can see today the remains because it is the current convent called "Augustinian". In 1188, in this war between the comte de Provence and the Earldom of Forcalquier, a shipment of 1 Adolphe, earl of Provence, from Castellane, allows him to invest the city. Boniface III gives tribute but its independence and its privileges him remain recognized. Note that in the documents from the era, in 1189, the village is the most important part of the community.
It must therefore imagine Petra Castellana a little desinvestie, but always maintained Castle, guarantee security, and Notre-Dame du Plan very important 50 years previously less crowded. In 1205 appears the 1st coat of arms of Castellane, on a deed of gift to the Knights Templar of Ruou of Valcros lands that belonged to Boniface IV, (which had succeeded in 1195 Boniface III his father).
When studying the history of the surrounding villages, one realizes the importance of these Knights Templar recruited from among the Lords of city, Demandolx, Rougon, Castellane who provided some sixty. This allows to assume that the barony was the support of the omnipotence of the order. The independence of the Lords of Castellane is reflected by the importance of the city and the glacis of the defence that they had developed around them and which included places of Rougon, Ville, La Garde, Taloire, Chasteuil, covering some forty villages.
In 1226, the son of Boniface III, Boniface IV becomes by marriage Baron of Germany-en-Provence and pays tribute to Raymond Béranger V. But the barony always retains its independence.
It was at this time also that occurs the first reconstruction of Saint-Victor constituted by the first nave of the Church. The first half of the 13th century will see the succession to Boniface IV, Boniface V, then Boniface VI the barony de Castellane and of Charles of Anjou, brother of Saint Louis, Raymond Béranger V at the Earldom of Provence.
In 1260 the parish of Saint-André du Roc is transferred to Saint-Victor as the majority of the resident population now in the village.
The "Troubadour" takes flight
In 1262. Boniface VI of Castellane, said "the Troubadour", says loud and clear that it wants to retain its independence and "well malignant that dislodge it". He allied with a coalition of Marseille and leases against Charles I.
He raised an army, takes Germany, arrives in front of Castellane. The compelling Baron cannot support headquarters in the village and folds in the upper town. Pont du Roc is destroyed. (It does will be rebuilt only 40 years later, in the vicinity of 1300, and then consolidated in 1350). Despite its formidable defences, the troops of the earl of Provence the penetrate. "The Troubadour" is still resistant in the castle of the rock but this last bastion is also invested. From the then in the Chapel, he raises a trap door and rushes into an underground by which he fled. The winner then dismissed its securities, confiscated the barony; reunited the comtal field, it becomes capital of Bailiwick... then Viguerie in 1483. However, the different branches of the family of Castellane will continue to provide the Kingdom with number of eminent nobles.
In 1270, Saint-Louis dies; in 1281, three years before his death, Charles I d'Anjou yields to Augustinian Château de Castellane, making their convent. A few years later (1300-1309) his successor Charles II will donate to this same fraternity of a house in the faubourg Saint-Martin. After serving from Hermitage, it will be transformed into a hospital. This is the period of the maximum power of the House of Anjou which lasted until 1343. On the other hand, it is the decline of the town of Castellane as feudal fief by the barons of the same name.

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A period of unrest for Castellane

In 1312, Philippe le Bel stops Jacques de Morlay, helped by Pope Clement V and it is the unfair trial of the Knights Templar. It is the end of the order of Malta which, we know, was of paramount importance with the Lords of Castellane. The legend says that a prisoner Templar manages to escape and died in holiness in a troglodyte Chapel in the gorges of the Verdon.
1343 sees the advent of Queen Jeanne, who only came up in Provence only once, in 1348. His reign marked the irreversible decline of the House of Anjou. She is murdered in 1382 after a stormy existence. In 1348 the so-called "black" plague ravage his Kingdom and depopulated during more than a century, Castellane must be abandoned, Petra Castellana will be more inhabited.
In 1359, after request for authorization from the Comte de Provence to protect the town became the most important agglomeration, began the construction of walls Castellane with, in part, the stones of Petra Castellana. This fortification, the first of the bourg, included Fourteen towers to platform which some had "feet in water", because Verdon (diverted much later in its present course), skirted the rock and fed the moat. The speaker was then pierced only by two gates: the Levant, the so-called Mazeau, defended by two towers and coupled with a storm door closed by a drawbridge. at sunset, the second under a high tower. They were almost intact in the 18th century.

The honours of Castellane

In 1390 will begin the brigandage of Sieur des Baux, Raymond Roger de Monfort, Visearl of Turenne, which will put the earlry to fire and blood for ten years.This sad sire, helped in his sinister undertaken by non less sad Tristan of Beaufort, tries to seize Castellane, but to no avail, as it faces the new fortifications that give Castellane its character and part of its current configuration which you can appreciate the buildings. Some are still intact, such the Tower pentagonal, or simply processed, such as the door sunset called clock, the corner of the square Tower Marcel Sauvaire or walls, pierced by windows, today are the houses of the National Street (ex-rue of in Vallat), or still gnawed by Ivy walls which climb the Hill. Beaten, to ensure the withdrawal of its troops, De Turenne blew the bridge of the Roc (1390). Huge financial problems will arise to rebuild. The Castellanais will receive aid of the Queen Marie of Blois, mother of Louis II.
Pierre de Lune, "antipope" Benedict XIII of Avignon, grants same indulgences in 1399 for any alms paid for its reconstruction. This contribution was apparently very successful.
In 1411, i.e. almost 150 years after was removed the barony of Boniface de Castellane and then Lords bailiff of the Earldom of Provence to administer the region, the coat of arms of the city (so of Castellane) whose motto was 'more honor than of honors', representing up to then a crenellated and pierced with a door-towered Castle, was joined by Marie de Blois, and Louis II, in recognition of the loyalty of their Bailiwick, a band of azure with three Golden Fleur-de-lis.

The good King René

During this second House of Anjou Queen Jeanne succeeds: Louis II, then Louis III and in 1434 René 1st of Anjou, known as good King René. Like all its predecessors, it will but in vain try to conquer its Italian lands, Naples and Sicily including.
He will return to Provence to remain there, in 1471, whether ten years after the advent of Louis XI; These two characters play a crucial role for the southern part of the France.
During the campaigns of King René in 1442, Notre-Dame-du-Plan is more vested with its role of parish transferred to Saint-Victor. This one, which was until then only a long nave dating from the 12th century, was added because of its narrowness and seen the number of new people, a new nave, which will be built partly with stone from Petra Castellana. These already carved stones bear the trace of their first use.
Saint-André-du-Roc and Saint-Victor similarity is striking. Just look at the façade, only still preserved remnant of the old church abandoned so that at the first glance this equation is needed, excessively rare phenomenon in architecture.
It builds also next to the nave and with stones from Petra Castellana, always the Bell Tower. In 1445, Saint-Victor has therefore two naves.
When good King René took the throne of Provence, in 1471, a particularly violent flood Verdon damaged bridge du Roc, abat of the houses and fills the streets of gravel. For 9 years, King René more or less well administered his Kingdom and in 1480 the estate, instead of be ensured by René II of the House of Lorraine, his grandson, is provided by his brother Charles III, Charles du Maine.
Dated 1481 (very important), Louis XI, first King to have actually sought to unify France, covet our rich province. Charles III of Maine, just as King René his brother, had any desire to be grappling with a ruler also powerful politically and militarily. December 10, 1481, by testamentary deed of Charles III, Provence was attached to the Crown of France. It arouses a spontaneous emergence of a large number of supporters Lords of René II, Lorraine party. This lifting of shields will be quelled by an army of 18,000 men. Agreements suggested in principle to Provence throughout its independence, however, what was intended to be an alliance will soon become addictive.

Period of peace to Castellane

Louis XI, who was a political purpose, in 1483, just before his death, ordered the destruction of the castle of the Lords of Petra Castellana, the fortress of the Roc. It is assumed that Notre-Dame of the rock, being always sanctified and no military strategic interest, was respected. Will succeed Charles VIII and Louis XII, and for fifty years, Castellane will live without another disorder.
In 1475 the repair of this unique bridge crossing the Verdon allows reuse of the Roman road which, more or less well maintained, is still at this time.
In 1515. François 1er will pass in the region but will not come to Castellane. The city then presents the typical form of the medieval cities. During this century, it expanded: houses are constructed out of walls, building of the monastery of the fathers of L'annonciade (originating in the Annunciation in Italy) in the vicinity of the door ' to the oxen", construction also the Church of Saint-Joseph (current location of Caisse d'Epargne) which was located at the Southeast end of the place of the Grave.
The suburbs are extended: Saint-Martin, in the South, at the foot of the rock, the name of the hospital established by the Augustinians, Saint-Michel, in the West brothers, as well as around the convent said Augustins, the now defunct closeup of a sumptuous Church Castellane conforms. II therefore imagine Castellane, from that time, grouped in what is called the village, (the rock, which will now be only a chapel) and Salinae: Notre-Dame of the Plan, less and less maintained, some remains, and always the Salins.
In 1535. François 1er promulgates an edict that governs the Provence, and completely overturns its administrative structures, more Charles III testamentary commitments away: it is a genuine fusion with the Kingdom.

A devastating Verdon

In 1536, Charles Quint wars against François 1er and invaded Provence. It was a hard year for Castellane, since the King of France who advocated the practice of grounding flange to slow the invader, the Castellanais are forced to burn their crops, to shoot down buildings that can accommodate the enemy, and it is thus are razed some houses outside the walls, including the hospital Saint-Martin, and is destroyed the Bell Tower of Notre-Dame du Plan, Bell Tower which will be never be reassembled.
In 1551, the flooding of the Verdon make again the damage in the city. You should know that at these times, and still in the 19th century, the streets of Castellane were not flat as everywhere else, but were kind of bottlenecks to escape outside the town, the River during its flood waters. They had rather the aspect of ditches, marking, with its medieval stalls, its typical character. The massacre of the Vaudois in Lubéron, in 1545, was the first-fruits of forty years of murderous madness, excess, bloody atrocities in which theology will no longer a pretext of vendettas, fears, civil war that spread during the eight wars of religion affecting particularly the Haute Provence including Castellane.

The brothers Mauvans

Thus, in these days of 1559, resides in Castellane the Lord of quail, next to the door of the Annunciation which overlooks the faubourg Saint-Martin. There, two brothers, Antoine and Paul Richieux, dismissed from the army, had withdrawn and became followers of the Protestant religion that Sieur de Caille argued. He organized the preaching in his home, also had one in Manosque, known meeting place of the party reformed since 1555. Also, when Catholics will invest this city in 1560 and prohibit access to protestants, this residence will be before. The Catholic clergy of Castellane is concerned with proportions that takes Protestantism.He come to Easter father Cordelier, fanatic interested in theological quarrels. In February, the followers fanatical by knowing the protestants in the House of the Lord of quail, take assault. Blood flows, there are dead, the Richieux brothers arrive nevertheless to escape. Houses are plundered and burnt in Castellane.
Paul Richieux, Lord of Mauvans, went to Aix to seek redress from the Parliament. It is rejected. His brother Antoine takes the head of an army and wishes to justice itself. They sow terror in Haute-Provence. They try a hand on Castellane but cannot invest the city, and are repelled. However Notre-Dame of the rock, Notre-Dame du Plan and Saint-Victor are devastated. They set fire to the convent of Augustins located outside the walls. Then their troupe takes Senez, plundered the Archbishopric, fire the Cathedral, devastates the monastery of Saint-André of the Desert, and kills canons in Barjols. Parliament is then priced the heads of the two brothers Mauvans.
Thanks to the support of the protestant Governor of Provence, they get the case to be heard before the courts but passing in Draguignan. Antoine de Mauvans is stoned by Catholics in fury, his body shipped to Aix. The Parliament, far short of the injury suffered by the reforms, accommodating attaches to that caused Catholics. His body is burned, her exposed head.
What says, rightly, that his brother Paul do rêvera to avenge him. Will follow a period of bloody unrest from 1562 where the Lord de Demandolx and his family will be killed, near their Castle in town. For twenty years, the wars of religion will continue (Saint-Barthélemy 1572) with fluctuations, fighting, taken strongholds, returns to calm; between 1565 and 1585, the disorders are reduced.

Plague and wars of religion

Unfortunately, in 1580, the plague spreads in Provence. In 1582, there is the reconstruction of the Augustinian monastery which, let us remember, was devastated in 1560. At the beginning of the same year, the fortifications were strengthened and the enclosure of Castellane is extended: the circular enclosure that you can very well again today, with discern the Tower Pentagonale planted on the Hill at the foot of the rock, and which gives to this village the nobility of medieval cities, extend, to the East, the faubourg Saint-Martin, the Tower of la Grave, then going West a bulwark of the door said the clock until this tower you see arriving by Digne, (a small fenestron box at the top of ceramic glazed colors inground) dated 1585. These walls will join the speaker to a few tens of metres from the foot of the Tower Pentagonale.
During the years 1585 and following, protestants and Catholics share and compete the strongholds in Haute-Provence. The Baron of Germany-en-Provence in the reign of Henri III, elected general of the reformed church of Provence. He is allied with Lesdiguiere and the first days of the year 1586, both try a hand on Castellane.
Catellane is beset by 1,500 troops, but the effect of surprise was foiled, the Castellanais have had time to prepare additional defenses and murer Tower of la Grave (round which will disappear at the same time as the Church of the Augustinians). The attackers are armed with firecrackers, (artillery), and decide to blow up the door of the Annunciation: Judith Andrau, by his presence of mind and audacity, kills the captain leading the troupe that flees. Saved Castellane commemorates since all on 31 January, the feast of the French, this victory. In 1589, it is the advent of Henri IV and in 1590 Notre-Dame du Roc, which had been demolished by the Calvinists, was rebuilt as it was before: it is a replica.
In 1595, Castellane entered the party of the King. The proclamation of the edict of Nantes, the Reformed Church entered Castellane. It is a break after forty years of civil war.
Twenty years later, in 1630, a new epidemic of plague ravaged the region. This scourge destroyed, said three quarters of the planet. For example, the worthy population jumps from 10,000 to 1,500 inhabitants.
Louis XIII, came to power in 1610, promulgates three years before his death in 1643, an edict which creates the Maréchaussée of Castellane putting the city at the forefront of significant city of Provence.
In 1644, the Visitandines create, through the Bishop of Senez, a convent in Castellane. This Convent is located in the walls opposite the Church of the Augustinians.
In 1650 the Fronde.

During the reign of Louis XIV

In 1657, Louis XIV cannot under privileges, give the barony to the Duke of Castillon, as in 1570 when the barony de Castellane was given to René Durieux.Castellane is indeed protected by the privilege confirmed by the House of Anjou, then Louis XII may 20, 1500. Dating back to the barony of the Lords of Castellane, it enacts such that the inhabitants of Castellane cannot bear arms for anyone outside the Earldom of Provence, they are all clear and free, and free of any charge in Provence. In 1663, the mercy brothers settled at Notre-Dame of the rock that they occupy until 1672.
Notre-Dame of the rock at that time was in good condition. In 1665, construction of the Church of the visitation that no longer exists, but you can still see today the door entrance next to the clock tower. During the second half of the 17th century, the religious buildings of Castellane are so dilapidated that in 1672 the brothers of mercy must start from Notre-Dame du Roc. In 1670, the pyramidal arrow of the Bell Tower of Saint-Victor collapses! In 1685, the revocation of the edict of Nantes is: this is a mortal blow to Protestantism in Provence; protestants opt either for conversion or exile.
It is during this 17th century fade the scars of the wars of religion, that is rebuilt the hospital Saint-Martin in the suburb of the same name, and sculptor Dollé, native of Castellane, will design the trophies of the portal of the arsenal of Toulon.

Monsignor Soanen

Ten years later was appointed Archbishop of Senez Monseigneur Soanen, figure in the town of Castellane. It will reside in the semi-detached House of the Visitandines, in front of the Church of the convent of the Augustinians in what would later be called "the Palace Lorenzi" which you can still enjoy the wide central staircase in Bd. Saint-Michel. It is the 17th century Castellane takes its current configuration. Namely its two ramparts and its narrow streets, its houses which some have been rebuilt, refurbished, but whose most date from this period. The streets you borrow are those that were drawn during the XVI century. The ruins that you will discover as you walk inside walls, behind the Church Saint-Victor on the hillside, were certainly inhabited until the 18th century, and then désinvesties in favour of dwellings located just outside the walls which you can always guess the structure since, although that pierced by windows, they are still there.
In 1697, Monseigneur Soanen worries about the pitiful state of religious buildings (churches Saint-Victor, Chapel of Saint - Thyrs, etc.). It must be said that taxes are excessively heavy and the money needed for their maintenance is lacking in the community. That same year, alas, heavy flooding Verdon will even raise the waters up to Saint-Victor and invade the bottom of the town, causing most certainly quite substantial additional damage. Spurred on, always, of Monsignor Soanen who is very attached to the city of Castellane, in 1702, Joseph Feraud, stonemason, rebuilt Notre - Dame du Roc in its current form that you can enjoy at the top of the rock, but by removing the shell that was extant until that year.
It is worth noting that in 1708, despite its complaints, Bishop Soanen is Saint-Victor in the same pitiful state. The soil is in is even not paved: custom was to bury in the nave; He asked what stops these uses. Engaging some work, he was surprised to find the bottom of the Bell Tower filled with bones... Was it the remnants of the plague victims of successive epidemics? The end of the reign of Louis XIV sees Jansenism which will be the pretext to more political than theological positions being taken. Monsignor Soanen, which seems to have been, on the other hand, very sincere in his convictions, defended Jansen appreciated prior of the convent of the visitation, neighbouring ubiquitous. The nuns will defend until you have serious trouble with the clerical authorities. In 1727, stamp letter will be addressed to him the siblings to the Chaise Dieu where he died in 1740 at the age of 90. He will have had time to bless the altarpiece Saint-Victor you can admire (dated 1724). Another figure well-known of this 18th century: the Lorenzi prior who was born in 1719 in Castellane. He was appointed prior in 1746.

Terror in Castellane

Then we are in middle of the war of succession of Austria and austro-sardes armies invaded Provence. They ravage the earlry. Castellane is taken by the invader who will barricade and reinforced the garrison. The winter arriving, French troops launched an assault in Haute-Provence. Prieur Lorenzi, first historian of Castellane tells this episode in the life of its city, the fighting, the devastated earlryside, burning barns, hospital Saint-Martin filled with 500 wounded. And if the population sees with satisfaction the defeat of the occupants of their city, this release will not go without pain or scarring. It is on the bridge of rock that the Austrian commander barricade to cover the retreat of its troops and was taken prisoner with his men. Lorenzi settled permanently in Castellane in 1776 and is dedicated to his life's work: the story of Castellane. Under its auspices, the four bells of Saint-Victor are recast and dedicated in 1778 to Ste Marie, Saint-Victor, Saint-André and Saint-Isarn. In 1780, the work resumed to Saint-Victor: it repairs the top of the Bell Tower, more or less happy restoration and creates the second northern side by the addition of a new nave. In 1792, prieur Lorenzi went into exile in France. It will return in 1802, will resume his duties, then turn off May 31, 1808 at his house in the street of mid-life. Castellane will live its revolution, and if it was not hung in the Alpes de Haute-Provence, there as elsewhere the excesses of brigandage, the churches were known to be damaged, and treasures perished during those dark years. Notre-Dame du Plan, then in ruin but with the vessel and its nave in very good condition, will be sold as well national and transformed in spinning. The nuns left the convent of the Visitation, transformed into hospice until 1840. Also disappears the Augustinian order. All administrative structures are of course upset. The war between the France and the Austria (1793), during which a Provençal army is thrown, brings terror into the Castellane district who must fight the Piedmontese. During the XVI century, a moat are filled, drawing street of in Vallat...

Napoleon in Castellane

The wars of the Empire are hardly Castellane, however... in the year 1815, Napoleon exiled to Elba Island, takes advantage of the release of English monitoring to embark with 1,000 men in the direction of the coast of France. He arrived in Golf Juan, March 1, early afternoon. The Emperor and his troupe move on Castellane by Grasse and Séranon. The Mayor of this town dispatched a special letter for that of Castellane, on the morning of March 3, to warn him of the arrival of this military column. Preceded by his guard, passing through the bridge of the Roc, Napoleon leads on the square, a bai horse-mounted and is recognized, greeted and cheered by the population. It comes down to the Hotel of the sub-prefecture where lunch is served, and during which he received the notables of the city, declaring review with pleasure Castellane and the Verdon, he had discovered in 1793. As usual, thanks to his prodigious memory, he recognizes a member who served in its armies, proposes it to resume function with progress then gives a 20 F piece to a disabled of the campaign of Russia by promising him a pension. 15 p.m., welcoming a few ladies who looked at him through the window of the House of the Justice of the peace, the Emperor still dressed in his legendary suit, goes back to horse and undermines the column of his officers in the direction of Barrême, baptizing by this market the road that now his name, in tribute to one who, with 1,000 men, moved to reclaim a Kingdom of 30 millions of souls.
In truth, it should be noted that the 85 national borrows only partially the route of the track of the emperor. The rear guard hand until the next morning, closing a visit that will leave unforgettable memories of this prestigious visitor surrounded by a troupe at the irreproachable conduct and supplied by a scrupulous stewardship, who purchased supplies and horses in the most honest prices.

Contemporary era

The 19th century will see the entire region from Castellane to depopulate this isolation that had been its strength will become inconvenience because the rural exodus due to the lack of industry, and the difficulty of communications will prevent the development of the entire region. This need for opening will be born in 1839 the construction of the road to Taulanne which will allow now the improvement of trade and a crossing of the earlry much easier by the ancient Roman, or rather what he left way, since it must not have been well-maintained during these centuries, as indicated by the writings and complaints from various Lords and notable. In 1860, hospital Saint-Martin was transferred to the former home of Monsignor Soanen. In 1876, is the disappearance of the Church of the Augustinians to widen the street to in Vallat became boulevard Saint-Michel and rue Nationale. May 7, 1876 the sacrament of Saint-Victor goes to the benefit of the current parish church consecrated by the Archbishop of Aix, new church which will be expanded in 1896. The 19th century will also see development of the ramparts and the implantation of new homes on the outskirts of the enclosure medieval de Castellane, houses that easily identify with their fringed white windows, their decorations of staff and their wrought iron balconies. Any social life therefore extends outside the walls, sub-prefecture, granting office, market occupying the arches of the hotel du Levant... In the 20th century, the rock, reinforced bridge in 1930, is classified by the Monuments of France on January 29, 1940. Today away floods thanks to Castillon and Chaudanne dams regulating the flow of the Verdon and doubled by another bridge, it would have sunk quiet away from traffic hours, if a part of the Roc not damaged by his fall in 1988, adding to this venerable book additional scar...

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