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Castellane, general introduction

The text, written by the Société Scientifique et Littéraire des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, recounts the days of studies conducted by members of the society in the town of Castellane. They bring historical elements but also their personal point of view on these days spent in Castellane. The text, dated 1982.

Castellane

Castellane in its chaos of mountains pourfendent superb roads greeted us on 20 May 1982.
Castellane, a city that moved into the space and time looking for his safety.
A city that owned a brief bishopric in the 5th century, lost it, but long attempted to snatch headquartered in nearby Sandra little.
A city that was the birthplace of one of our greatest feudal families. Castellane, whose branches stretch yet on the whole France, are born here on a rock. And it is a fact that the dynasties, who were the most powerful, the most generous of strong men (we like to say it again) have all taken root on sharp peaks, they are called Simiane, Mevouilhon or Castellane. Flint flowed in the veins of these greedy and pugnacious people.
Castellane, a city where sprang the first spark of the religious wars that have bruised the Haute Provence inexpiablement.
A city that rejected the thirsty troops looting and death of the invincible Lesdiguières.
A city that the first of the high country counted a historian scholar and, therefore, a good story which is still referencing.
A city that was the scene in the most amazing election comedy 1.898 of Courteline fortunately exceeded.
A city rich of monuments, with a speaker embedded in the houses of the old village, Bristly of doors and towers, a town with broken churches but Saint-Victor good presents with his questions and his beautiful furniture.
A perhaps rigmarole town winter, but disheveled life summer, prey and offering to overflowing, tourism client geological splendor of the Verdon.
This is Castellane traveller, the brave, the multiple. These pages deliver you the in its diversity. Love her!
Pierre Columbus

Fourth day of study at Castellane

Fourth day of study of the Société scientifique et Littéraire of the Alpes de Haute-Provence (May 20, 1982)
In response to the invitation of the municipality of Castellane and the scientific and literary society, it was not without concern that a few hundred listeners come from the four corners of the Department entered nine hours in the room of the Maison de la Culture de Castellane in this Ascension Thursday May 20, 1982. The weather was very uncertain and could fear the rain for lunch on the grass and afternoon visits. But the warm hospitality of the Castellanais surrounding their mayor, Mr. Boniface, made soon forget this concern and it is with attention that the audience heard the submissions contained in this brochure, where place also the texts which were not presented may 20, lack of time, that the morning has slightly exceeded the timetable. There's so much to say on Castellane who yet since the prior Laurensi before the Revolution and fat-Bourguet in 1840, has little tent historians. The present booklet strives to fill this gap, indicating at least the routes to follow.
After the long meeting of communications, the Auditors were able to take cognizance of an exhibition devoted to the history and ancient aspects of Castellane, whose portrait at the foot of the Marshal de Castellane, painted around 1860 oil, was not the slightest ornament. A wine of honour given by the municipality ended the first part of the day, in a more friendly atmosphere.
Las! The fears of the morning were not in vain. The overly optimistic unwary who had believed to be able to implement their project to have lunch on the grass last soon abandon the place under torrents of water. The storm a little calmed down, a large group of passionate listeners of history began, as expected, the rise to the Roc and Petra Castellana but he had him also soon to retreat under the raging cataract and take refuge in the Church Saint-Victor to follow the presentation of this remarkable monument by M. Ehrmann and M. Colomb. It's even in the rain the faithful group went to the former Augustinian church remaining a Romanesque Vault warheads with rectangular section with key, then in the nearby garden of the cloister where several stone monuments described by fat-Bourguet are kept. But the storm accelerated and lightning fell not far from a group of congressmen!
Was - for better do us understand and appreciate the devotion of Saint Isarn and Sainte Fleur Castellanais? The text of an old prayer for this purpose can be found in the following pages. As well, the House of Culture appeared it all a haven of tranquility at the end of the day and the wine of farewell given by the municipality was particularly appreciated. While on behalf of the Castellanais, Mr. the Mayor Boniface provided scientific society and literary of all its sympathy, Mr. Colomb thanked the municipality and all his staff for their warm welcome and assistance of interest argued that it showed for the fourth day, despite the unfavourable circumstances.

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Castellane in the history

Ducelia, an oppidum established on the rock or on one of the neighbouring heights; Saline, the Roman city in the Valley; Petra Castellana, the castrum of the high middle ages and the city below, then Castellana, settlement, first enclosed within its walls, and that, in expanding gradually, will form the current Castellane: as many toponyms that punctuate the major stages in the history of this city of the average Valley of the Verdon, strategic point on the route of Vence, then de Grasse, in Digne. The word Cimira, found in the CARTULARY of Saint-Victor de Marseille, cannot be applied to a district of Saline.
It is quite clear that it is the Romans who imposed in Ducelia, capital of Suetrii, the name of salt (saline) due to the presence on its soil of two saline sources, still operated during the middle age. The Romans did, once more, that "romaniser" already inhabited site.
The origin of Ducelia may indeed go back to the dawn of time, to cause even the two saline sources: traces of prehistoric habitat can be found in the cliffs that dominate the Verdon.
Saline drift the name of Civitas Saliniensium (city of salt merchants), ethnic urban having prevailed in the Roman period the name of the tribe. This civitas Saliniensium became part of the province of the Alpes Maritimes, whose capital was at first Cimiez before Embrun.
Saline also gave its name for commercial reasons without doubt, in the via salinaria (salt road), stretch - Castellane-the Escale, by worthy - of the road leading from Cimiez by Vence, Sisteron and Embrun, linking the Aurelian way to the Domitian. A pre-Roman, simple channel track, originally, chapbook of salt.

Ancient Saline

It is by this route that allowed to go from Cimiez to Embrun that Christianity had to penetrate fairly early in Saline. But came of Embrun and Cimiez?
Though the Romans had not changed ways of grouping of the world's indigenous people, the Church of the first centuries adopted, in turn, divisions of the Roman civil administration. The civitas was usually chosen as ecclesiastical and his capital was the seat of the Bishop.
Christianized, Saline became the seat of a bishopric: Claudius, Bishop of the Saliniens, is present at the Council of Riez in 439. But this bishopric had only an ephemeral existence. He disappeared at the beginning of the 6th century to the benefit of Senez, including the first known Bishop, Mahrous is mentioned in 506.
Castellane will keep long the nostalgia of his bishopric and will repeatedly seek to resume his episcopal rank. Of the Bishops of Senez themselves (Elzéar de Villeneuve in 1485, Jean Clausse in 1560, Louis - Anne Aubert de Villeserin in 1653) will attempt to transfer their seat. Others will make their residence. Such Soanen Bishop that there will build a beautiful Palace, said Laurensi, with this inscription in letters of gold on the Portal: Dom us episcopalis; and administrators of his diocese after his exile, Jean told Saléon, then Louis-François-Gabriel of Orléans de La Motte. As Bishop of voting, appointed Bishop on the death of Bishop Soanen, he will share his home between Sandra and Castellane.
Of ancient Saline what remains of our days? A name, apparently that of a neighborhood, Sadha, near Notre-Dame-du-Plan, some archaeological remains, those of a theatre perhaps funerary inscriptions, the remains of columns, urns, coins (medals as they were called in the last centuries) found incidentally in the soil, milestones were found in the vicinity. Notre-Dame-du-Plan succeeded Paleochristian Cathedral, and the churches, which had with it form the episcopal complex, there is that names, St. John, St. Peter and St. Lawrence, mentioned in a Charter of the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille, in 1043.
Already weakened by the ravages of the Lombards and without defensive value, Saline could not cope with the Saracens, hordes of looters rather than warriors Muslim, which devastated the region during the 9th and 10th centuries. The capture of saint Mayeul, Abbot of Cluny, dated 22 July 972.

Castellane in the X and XI centuries

To survive, the population sought refuge on the Roc, both point to difficult access and observation post. This is that charters the fall in the 11th century.
Rocky butte served as support to a castrum which is probably at the origin of the House of Castellane, Austrasians emigrated from the Mâconnais in Provence, that is reported officially in Castellane in the 11th century: in 1053, one of them, Jason Aldean, very old, renders to the Abbey of St. Victor, the goods which he has unfairly on the Roc and that were once, before the Saracen invasions, a Jarl of the Abbey established long in Castellane. Saint-Victor had need of good summer for its sheep pastures.
A few lowlands to the North, on a less rough terrain has built Petra Castellana. The castrum, camp cut, had quickly given way to a castellum, a castle.
Saline, however, destroyed by the Saracens, depopulated and devastated repeatedly by the flooding of the Verdon, does not seem to have been completely abandoned. His church Notre-Dame-du-Plan is mentioned in the Charter of 1043. It was the Church of a Priory of Saint-Victor in which she had been given in 1040. She was also a parish church and will remain so until the 15th century. What can still see dates back to the 13th century.
Until 1262 the history of Castellane confuse with that of his barons. In Exchange for his safety Castellane gave them his name.
When in 1189 Boniface III was ordered to pay tribute to Provence, he proudly understand to Alfonso of Aragon he was after God only master on board in his stronghold of Castellane, "than his predecessors, reports Laurensi, had conquered this sovereignty by their value by giving whaling to the Saracens. To only a very vague and distant homage to the Emperor, the barons de Castellane were in fact real rulers.
Their Barony included all the communes in current Canton of Castellane, Saint-Andre and Sandra.

Poetry of Barbarossa

Their court, writing fat-Bourguet, "was composed of businessmen a rare merit, of women of great beauty, she greatly appealed to emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who he lavished praise in his poems."
The following verses are attributed to this monarch:
"Plas mi, cavalier [rances and dona catalana]"
And the onrar del Georgiou
(And the Court of Castellana."
Please me chevalier François and the Catalan Lady
And the honor of the Genoese
And the Court of Castellane

Church and Castle

At that time a Castle a church dedicated to the Virgin Mary was built on the rock. This was probably originally the chapel of the Castle. It was the mentioned from the 12th century. Ruined several times, it was rebuilt including around 1590, and then again in the 18th century. It still leaves "see, notes Jacques Thirion, notable pieces of beautiful unit by the end of the 12th century walls." A statue of the Virgin Mary the overcomes since 1876. Notre-Dame-du-Roc became a place of pilgrimage after the wars of religion.
Petra Castellana also had his Church, Saint-André-du-Roc, parish thereof, of which there remain only ruins of the beginning of the 13th century. At the end of the 11th century however its inhabitants who had found some security had started to descend into the Valley on a small nearby Salinoe nipple. Petra Castellana was finally abandoned in the 14th century, probably as a result of the terrible black death of 1348, which depopulated, said, the three parts of the world (it did not know yet five at the time). His house was demolished in 1390.

The village of Castellane

The new habitat that would call the "village" was formed in the course of the 12th and 13th centuries. In 1359 it encircled of walls of which there is a tower, the pentagonal tower and doors.
To avoid the population to be torn between the two parishes of Notre-Dame-du-Plan and Saint-André-du-Roc, was built in the first half of the 13th century, in the centre of the village, on land owned by the Marseille Abbey, a new Church, Saint-Victor. The new Priory thus founded was joined to that of Notre-Dame-du-Plan, prior to which was entrusted the new parish. Growing up with the village, eventually it became in the 15th century the single parish of Castellane.
Saint-Victor was the parish church of Castellane until May 7, 1876.
And the population was descended from Petra Castellana toward the village, the barons de Castellane became build a large Castle in the Valley, which will then be the couvent des Augustins.
But their power was seriously threatened. Already in 1189 Boniface III after taking head to the comte de Provence, Alfonso of Aragon, had to resign themselves to come to Grasse tribute to him.
However, it was the marriage of Beatrix, heiress of the Ramon Berenguer, with the brother of Saint Louis, Charles of Anjou, who put an end to the presence of Castellane in Castellane. The new County was determined to rule Provence.From July 15, 1250 he had erected the barony of Castellane in Bailiwick and there had established a Court of justice. Twelve years later, seizing the opportunity of participation by Boniface VI with a Marseilles rebellion, he seized the city of Castellane and the Citadel. Boniface had time to escape by an underground. The barony of Castellane was confiscated and became count Earth.
Thus ended, in July 1262, the common history of a city and his barons, a long history of three centuries.

Privileges

In a Charter of 11 July 1252 Boniface VI had granted a number of privileges to his subjects: the baron could not decide anything or judges condemn anyone without the consent of the notables of the city; people who wanted to leave the country could take away all their possessions; the wills were validated; fairs should be free of any toll; the inhabitants were exempt from taxes, except, in particular, where the baron would buy a land or would be taken prisoner, as well as his children...
All these privileges were confirmed by the rulers of the House of Anjou and others were still granted: the town of Castellane became inalienable and inseparably United with the County of Provence (very important clause that prevented particular King René to dispose of Castellane and his lands to a Neapolitan Lord, Spinolis Sualion; then later Kings Henri III and Louis XIV to the barony(, to Renée de Rieux in 1577 and the other to the Duke of Châtillon in 1657); the inhabitants could not be forced to bear arms for the King out of the count of Provence, Forcalquier and adjacent land; they were all francs and free, free of any charge in Provence...
These privileges will be again confirmed by Louis XII, May 20, 1500.

Under the Angevin dynasty

The name of Charles II of Anjou remains attached to the Foundation of a convent of hermits of St. Augustine to Castellane. The ruler set up first in a house in the faubourg Saint-Martin (who later became Hospital), today the village, and then gave them the old Castle of Castellane, off the wall, not far from the door of the clock. More fit them to build a large church which, for convenience, was oriented to the South and including the sacristy was the former chapel of the Castle. The religious will remain there until the Revolution.
But Castellane lived not that happy days under the Angevin dynasty.
She had to suffer the plague in 1348. Raimond de Turenne besieged him in 1390, but could not seize them. On the other hand, it demolishes the bridge which had to be done again and had to rebuild. Moreover terrible raw Verdon poorly dammed, devastated the plain, penetrated into the town, demolishing houses, filling the streets of gravel and sand. It had to build a dam which maintenance was always one of the major concerns of the community.
It, said Laurensi, indifferently held meetings until about the year 1446, instead the Grave (now called place Marcel Sauvaire) to the Augustinian cloister, in the Court of justice and even in the Church Saint-Victor. Only the Court of justice had its designated local who faced the Church Saint-Victor in 1366. Subsequently the Court and the community is shared a house within the walls of the city, near the gate of Saint-Augustin (clock gate), that their désempara chapter of Senez.

The fortress of the Roc

In 1481 Castellane, with Provence, passed under the Crown of France.
Like many other strongholds of the country, the fortress of rock which was carefully preserved and maintained by the Angevins would be demolished and razed by order of Louis XI in 1483. Was Notre-Dame-du-Roc it spared?
Du viguier replaced the bailiff. Then in 1640 Castellane became the seat of a Seneschal, whose jurisdiction included two capitals viguerie (Annot and Guillaumes), two Episcopal cities (Senez and Glandèves-Entrevaux), two places of war (Entrevaux and Guillaumes). The sénéchaussée put Castellane to the rank of notable cities of Provence.
Commercially its union to the France allowed him to benefit from a sort of common market with neighbouring provinces.

The invasion of Castellane by Charles V

The Castellanais had a peaceful existence until the invasion of Provence by Charles v in 1536. The city was not attacked but in badly paid the price. To force the invaders to withdraw, François Ier had ordered to practise the policy of scorched earth: all the fruits of the campaign were destroyed, harvests and burned Hay, the widespread Cellars wines, wheat granaries thrown into wells, herds hidden in the highest mountains. Was demolished also all buildings that can be used to the enemy: the Bell Tower of Notre-Dame-du-Plan was shot down, homes were razed to the ground outside the walls (the Hospital of Saint-Martin was not spared).
In 1551 it was a violent raw Verdon who felt Castellane: the river submerging the dam overflowed with so much abundance that could touch the top of the bridge.
But much more terrible still were the wars of religion, these fratricidal wars in which Catholics and protestants to entrégorgèrent and to étripèrent, rivaling of cruelty and intolerance. In Provence is in Castellane in was given the signal. A Lord of quail, the Brown of Castellane family, was one of the first followers of the reform. His example soon to lead to two young officers of the House of Richieud, Antoine and Paul de Mauvans.
A preaching of a fanatical cordelier, at the time of lent 1559, set fire to the powder. Excited, the population rushed, threatening, street Soubeirane against the House of sieur de Caille where stood a sermon. Panicking protestants fired into the crowd, leaving three dead and several wounded. It was the signal of the war.
Lynchings of protestants and reprisals followed. In 1560, while his brother Paul was in Aix to ask Parliament justice of damage suffered by the protestants, Antoine de Mauvans, at the head of a small troupe, burned down the Church of the convent of the Augustinians and demolished in the cloister (convent rebuilt in 1582). Notre-Dame-du-Roc was also sacked; and burned the liturgical furniture for the churches of Notre-Dame-du-Plan and Saint-Victor.
The cruel assassination of Antoine de Mauvans, in Draguignan, still marked an escalation in the violence. His brother Paul will not continue to avenge him until the day where he will be killed, in turn, during a scuffle with the Duke of Montpensier, on October 25, 1568.
The war however was organized. Castellane had strengthened its fortifications and had extended them to the suburb of Saint-Michel. The baron of Germany and Duke of Lesdiguières decided to seize the city. Political and military reasons no doubt, but probably also sentimental attachment: the one and the other had blood of Castellane. The baron of Germany was descended directly from
Boniface III, the Duke of Lesdiguières was son of Françoise de Castellane Saint-Juers.
Perhaps they succeeded in their purpose. Unfortunately for them they were sighted by a poor woman who picked up the wood on the side of the Escoulor, and the alarm was given to Castellane. Defence was heroic to the door of the Annunciation and the baron of Germany and Duke of Lesdiguières last beat a retreat on January 31, 1586. Every year the feast of the Petardiers commemorates this historic day.

Convents and religion

Having to repair the miseries physical and moral of the 16th century, 17th appears as that of the institution or to the renovation of many establishments and charitable associations, at the same time as the Foundation of quantity of convents.A Castellane on rebuilt the Hospital of Saint-Martin at the suburb of the same name where he remained until 1860. This year it will be reinstalled in the former residence of Bishop Soanen and its former building will be transformed into police barracks. Established mercy brotherhoods of penitents, white in 1600 (be in the chapel in the old Episcopal House of Bishop Clausse), blue in 1667 (their Chapel will be that of Saint-Joseph, place of the Grave). Hospital and existing brotherhoods were a great help during the epidemic of plague of 1630.
Bishop Louis Duchaine, Bishop of Senez, it must the Foundation of three religious institutions: the famous convent of the Visitation and those of the fathers of mercy and the Christian Doctrine.
The convent of the Visitation was founded in 1644 and the church built in 1665. The nuns arrived apt under the guidance of the Provost of Saint-Jacques-de-Barrême, Honoré Bouche, the famous historian of Provence. On their first built a House of Augustinian square. It has become too small (there were twenty sisters in 1650), the community acquired several adjoining houses. It buy even that of Bishop Soanen in 1734. A moment Jansenists with Bishop Soanen, the visitation will then resume gradually, not without difficulties, the path of orthodoxy. They will remain in Castellane until the Revolution. The monastery of the Visitation included the current Town Hall, the House Tourniaire Autran and, after the departure of Bishop Soanen for la Chaise-Dieu, the home of the prelate who will be in 1860 shared between the hospital and a boarding school girls closed in 1903. The door of the old church of the Visitation is still visible near the clock tower. It is reached by several markets. Bishop Soanen held its synods in this church and helped many ordinations.
The fathers of mercy remained first at Notre-Dame-duRoc in 1663, then in a House that they build in 1672 on the ramparts of the city (near the start of the current path that climbs to Notre-Dame-du-Roc). Their number was always very reduced, so their convent was abolished as early as 1747.
With respect to the Doctrinaires called by Bishop Duchaine in 1651, they passed very shortly in Castellane, the seminar of Senez was unable to be transferred in this city. During their short stay they resided in a house adjacent to the large Tower on the Grave. If in the 17th century many convents had appeared in Castellane, they had also disappeared one of the servites, so-called de L'annonciade, fathers religious who have never forgotten that their first home had taken birth in the sanctuary of the Annunziata near Florence. Of their convent of Castellane remains a name, that open in the ramparts in the 16th century and near which the Annunciation door was to be their home inside the enclosure.

Torments in the 18th century

The 18th century began badly for Castellane. In 1702 the Verdon water rose until the doors of the Church Saint-Victor. In 1709 the severity of winter did perish quantity of trees and freeze the waters of the River are going to foot dry. We had to break the ice to get water. A beginning of famine ensued.
The middle of the century was not less disastrous. Castellane whose fortifications fell into ruins, could not defend themselves against the army of the Austro-Sardes combined together against the France and the Spain. In 1746 French and Spaniards had suffered a serious defeat at Piacenza and had to retreat. More than five hundred wounded had been brought to Castellane in the month of October. To greet the convent of the Augustinians had requisitioned. The Austro-Sardes followed closely. On 30 November they entered Grasse and December 17 Piedmont Knight Machaolico stood at the gates of Castellane. He was received without a fight. But the next morning, attacked at the tip of the day by the Knight of the Enfrenet, he was forced to withdraw after a brief battle on the place of the Grave. This success however, was of short duration. A few days later came an army of two thousand Piedmontese and Spanish under the command of the marquis of Ormea. The Enfrenet, whose troops were less in number, hastened to leave the city. It was Bishop de Vocance is reduced to meet the enemy. Impressed by the reception of the prelate, the marquis of Ormea promised to respect the city and kept his promise. Finally after a twenty-day sit-in Castellane was issued by the marquis of Maulévrier, 21 January 1747.
The effects of the occupation were long felt. The ' community, said Laurensi, having been forced to make huge spending, in contributions, for extortion, be for members, gifts, gratuities, and thousand other things inevitable, in addition to a stupendous wheat, sheep quantity, cattle and fodder that she was forced to provide, found himself exhausted, overwhelmed the arrival of the French debt "which further exhausted it by their multitude and the damage that they did in the churches and in the homes of individuals where it was housed by the hundreds.
Then, finally, came the Revolution...

Castellane to the Revolution

Castellane in experienced upheavals of general and local, hopes, disappointments, excess and misery.
As early as November 21, 1790 the commune Council acknowledged that if "the establishment of a district in this town was the subject of the wish of all its citizens", they "did not anticipate that they would be defined in a very small area of land consisting of three jurisdictions only, poor and scarce population, with the affouagement" was "barely eighty fires; "they had combined the expenditure calculated forces nor swung the benefits with the loss".
"Poverty is extreme, reads another deliberation of the following November 25, grain harvest has failed and the price of the bled is excessive; "the rich is reduced to the necessity to leave possessions without culture and the poor who found in his work a resource to its needs, is obliged to remain idle and dragging unhappy days, the impositions of this municipality is overwhelming".
The tone is the same in the deliberation of 18 January 1791: "this district, the poorest of all France, under a sky tart, with a ground hard, thankless, without trade, lacking even the means of industry, subject to the law, cherishing his King... is in the most extreme poverty, the boundaries of this district have narrowed an inexpedient wayeven to its neighbors, and ruinous for him - even, our legislators were probably induced error during his training, we hope the relief, but meanwhile, we see with the deepest pain administrative justice costs are of an excessive burden and that they exceed its means... we must educate our legislators of excess of the expenditure and the advantage that they believed usis a harm to the nation.
The calm however reigned in Castellane until September 25, 1791.

Problems of bishoprics

On 20 February 1791, pressed to take the constitutional oath, prieur-cure Laurensi (historian of Castellane) had added to the ritual formula except religion. He had also refused, shortly thereafter, to recognize the new constitutional Bishop of Digne. Impeachment became inevitable; He was however his duties until August 16 — need to find him a replacement.
But when September 25 the Abbot Déodet, who had been elected on 8 August, wanted to take possession of his charge, the people, assembled outside the Church Saint-Victor, demurred. It was then decided to bring in the National Guard, but none of his men ran. "The popular, reads a stored report in the deliberations of the Council of the community, meets on the passing of Mr. Déodet, gather in crowds out the door of the parish, student voice, redouble his threats, the beer is out and exposed ahead of the parish;" the priest did not arrive, beer, a shovel and two picks are paraded by four children throughout the city and made ahead of the House of the Poilroux where Deodet was housed..." The poor Deodet insisted not. This will be the vicar Honoré-Victor Marie, elected parish priest constitutional of the parish, which will lend oath on July 8, 1792.
The Department had to give prior-cure Laurensi, September 27, 1791, permission to say mass in the Church of the Augustinians. The monks had left their convent sold as national property, but the Church kept its prestige. Many Castellanais had their graves, it was unthinkable to touch. The Church is narrated in a deliberation of the Council of the community "in which lie the ashes of our fathers for centuries, will be retained in the State it is, both by the respect that we owe to the same ashes which are us sy pressieux, for the convenience of our fellow citizens".
Force was also to recognize that Castellane was very shared religiously. The Mayor formally acknowledged in a declaration of December 20, 1791:

Declaration of 1791

"Mr. you ignored not only Mr Carbonel, Andrau and moy (J. D." Perrone) have acquired national areas that appartenoient to the cy - front of Augustinian religious of this city, consisting of among others to the Church, sacristy and steeple adjoining to smoldering them and to both Eastern and Western buildings that made up the monastery, that our object in this acquisition less was to satisfy our taste and make our advantage, to give the municipality of evidence of our desire to contribute to its increase and of ensuring peace and tranquillity of our compatriots. two cults sharing the city, we do not believe better fulfill the purpose that we we were proposed as to offer and commit to accept the Church and its dependencies to those who, professing a religion not salaried by the nation, were devoid of a house where they could freely congregate and practice decently and without gene ceremonies which they adopted in their religious opinions; We already receive the most doubt reward that we could hope for our benefit, each denomination enjoys freedom granted by the constitution of the Kingdom, and each inhabitant, worshiping the Lord in the form that he believes to be the most pleasant, went quietly to the intended to the worship House he professes the same peace with fellow citizens to attend them; that although the Church, sacristy and the Bell Tower of the Augustinian religious front cy their ayent was sold without any kind of reserve, that therefore everything is issued placed for a permanency either included in the sale, the directors of the Department of Basses-Alpes nevertheless claim today ' huy that bells do point part, that the National Assembly did not heard sell the bells with the buildings where they to werethat is a piece of furniture for which she took a special determination, that we cannot keep them, and accordingly ordered administrators of the district of this city to put into pieces and transported to the city of Digne, somewhat based the contention of the Department, we have not believed duty we y directly oppositeWe only eager on the knowledge that we have had to request Messrs. administrators of the Executive Board of the district to give us a few days to take a subsequent determination, assuming that the cult of the Mavericks souffriroit much of the deprivation of the bells and putting no doubt that objects that can cover half the city must be taken into account by the community..."

Augustinians and blue and white penitents brotherhood

But extremists facing this tolerance could not last long. On May 1, 1792, prieur-cure Laurensi had to leave Castellane.
Where, on the orders of Bishop de Bonneval, Bishop of Senez, he will return to Italy in September 1795, it is still in the Augustinian Church that he will resume his duties. It will exercise them there until September 1797, time at which a new wave of persecution will require hiding. And peace returned, again at des Augustins that he returns, November 30, 1800, before retaking possession of the Church Saint-Victor.
In a part of the convent was installed as early as 1793, a public school with the aim "to educate young citizens and make them smell the bases and principles of the great Republic". Later, from 1878 to 1898, the brothers of St. Gabriel there will open a college. In 1913 the prince of Monaco will be recipient of the former monastic buildings for the school colonies of the Principality.
From the beginning of the Revolution were also sold as national property the church Notre-Dame-du-Plan (which will be transformed into spinning) and the convent of the Visitation nuns left on 2 October 1792.
Still saw the removal of the confraternities of penitents white and blue. Of these penitents, only blue reparaîtront under the restoration. We see them appear on two tables ex-voto to Notre-Dame-du-Roc, in long processions, one during an outbreak of cholera in 1835, the other in an outbreak of smallpox in 1870. Their St. Joseph chapel was chosen, on 14 February 1793, with all its furnishings, as Church-oratory; She was often also the seat of ordinary municipal meetings, general assemblies taking place usually in the Augustinians. It will be purchased in 1804 and made to worship.
Putting an end to the bishopric of Senez, Revolution was, in addition, a prejudicial to Castellane repeatedly residential town of its bishops.

Castellane in the 19th century

The Castellane Revolution had waivers of men, requisitions and the atrocities of all kinds that always cause wars. She still knew them under the Empire.
Also, when the return of the island of Elba, Napoleon stopped in the city, there was greeted with more curiosity than of sympathy and won without difficulty three passports in white, signed by the Mayor. A plaque above the door of the old Hall of the sub-prefecture where he had lunch, commemorates this passage.
Town and district Castellane had become sub-prefecture. Removed in 1926, while the tribunal who had succeeded in the Court of the Seneschal, the Sub-Prefecture was restored in June 1942.
A new parish church was built in the 19th century. That of Saint-Victor, made to worship on 13 October 1802, had become too small as a result of suppression of convents which the Castellanais attended many churches. She was also in very poor condition.
May 16, 1869, Bishop Meirieu, Bishop of Digne, blessed and laid the first stone of the new church dedicated to the sacred heart. In this stone had been placed several coins of Pius IX and Napoleon III, a piece of the Agnus Dei blessed by the Pope and having the virtue of away the lightning, it was believed, the arms of the city and the inscription of Foundation.

Late 19th, early 20th century

After engineering October 26, 1873, by the cure-Dean Nestolat, the Church was consecrated solemnly, may 7, 1876, by the Archbishop of Aix, Mr Fourcade, assisted by Bishop Meirieu.
Become, in turn, too small, the Church of the sacred heart was enlarged in 1896. It added two aisles, she thus lost its shape of a Latin cross. Started in July, the work was completed in December.
If the year 1876 was the consecration of a new Church, it was also very unfortunately the disappearance of the Church of the Augustinians. This church which had crossed without much damage the revolutionary turmoil with respect that he wore the Castellanais was demolished to allow the widening of a road, the boulevard Saint-Michel. Irreparable loss that could have been prevented through a different route trace.
The former chapel of the Château de Castellane - construction so prior to 1262 - has been preserved. Decommissioned in 1898, and then made for worship in 1915, it is currently placed under the patronage of Saint-Joseph, to remind probably the memory of the former chapel of the penitents blue, of the same name, demolished in 1911, it also for the purpose of public utility.
The elections of the extreme end of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th were the opportunity, in the arrondissement of Castellane, the candidature of glitzy count Boni of Castellane, whose name could not have a historical resonance to the ears of the castellanais country. The memory of his campaigns electoral (1898-1905), during which he distributed gold with both hands and which gave rise to of amusing anecdotes, remained a few memories.
Then Castellane lived, there are just a few years, at the time of large dams. Now, it is tourism which makes it live.
These long centuries of castellanaise history it seems particularly need to retain the 13th. It is a "grand siècle", where it built both Notre-Dame-du-Plan, Saint-André-du-Roc, Saint-Victor, the Castellane Castle and the bourg. Castellane was covered with religious and civil monuments. An aphorism became proverb does it not say that 'when the building will Tower going?' This general prosperity Castellane the owed the wise administration of his powerful barons. Was it not the root cause of the Angevin conquest?
Mary Magdalene Vire

The site of Ducelia

The first peoples of the Verdon way have left us very rare testimonies of their presence and their way of life. However some archaeological discoveries have already demonstrated a human activity since the antiquity, in the low directed gorges, Moustiers, La Palud, Rougon, Moriez, go...
To the descendants of the primitives of the bronze age mixed gradually migrants of uncertain origin. Ethnic groups were formed and the construction of small cities succeeded former habitat in natural caves. Thus was formed the stand native Ligurian, surrounded by the Iberians, Celts and the Italiotes. Each tribe of this ensemble remained attached to its domain, even when federations organised themselves. The partitioning and the relief of the Southern Alps determined naturally individualism and the activity of these mountain people of Southeast: they attached their habitat, oppidum or castellaras, above average, enough adjacent land arable, but quite clear to facilitate observations far and quite safe to provide protection against animal hordes or bands of looters.
Therefore, the primitive tribe of the castellanais territory, the Suetrii, settled first on a highest point close to a salt source, 'sadha', on the right bank of the Verdon, on the edge of the current plan of Castellane. "The pre-Roman name of the capital of the tribe of the Suetrii was Ducelia" (Guy Barruol). The toponym appears in two charters of the CARTULARY of Saint - Victor de Marseille analyzed in 1942 by N. Latha: one of 1038: "Petram case-tellanam, castrum sive villam than antiquitus vocata is Ducelia"; other 1040: "... in loco vel villa vocatur Petra Castellana, Duselia, sive Cimiranis..."
The toponym Ducelia was ignored by the ancient historians of Castellane, Laurensy, J. J.M. Féraud, Louiquy and fat-Bourguet.

Assumptions regarding Ducelia

The implementation of Ducelia raised three hypotheses:
•    the rock itself, site which would have been abandoned during the Roman peace then reoccupied in the middle ages? (suggesting that the source of the Sadh had not interested first Ligures).
•    Signal Hill (side 812)? Excellent Observatory, where yet no pre-Roman evidence has been found so far.
•    on the rocky spur, the balm Fine bar, which overlooks the Sadh?

On the rocky spur that dominates the Sadh

A thorough survey was undertaken on this third site by an archaeologist amateur, Jacques Félisat, of castellanaise descent, disciple of Dr. Donnadieu and Mr. Gérin-Ricard. Research conducted during the summers of 1956 to 1968, helped to highlight the remains of a primitive habitat and an oppidum on the terraces of this rocky spur above the Sadh and East of the hamlet of Brayal. The collected pieces were the following: arrowheads, polishers and Flint scrapers. axe stone polished; splinters of bone (with traces of polishing or cutting); bronze arrowheads; footprint of braided basketry in a fragment of clay; fragments of pottery: several coves and fund vases - debris belonging to vases of great size, made of a yellow clay without any grain of calcite and comprising a ledge decorated with holes - sigillata pottery debris - fragments with handle, rib circular and decoration on the edge - fragment decorated with dotted and rafters - fragment of blue vase (Gallo-Roman).
The survey also revealed the existence of shelter and dry stone walls. Lived probably since prehistoric times, and then laid out by the Ligures, this site well seems to be pre-Roman oppidum called Duce-lia. Place of refuge in the event of danger (E. Baratier) this site was replaced, at the time of the Roman peace by saline also near the Sadh, but in the plain West of the map of Castellane.
The survey limited, but of major interest, led by Jacques Félisat has not infringed at the deposit. We hope, with Jacques Felisat, that searches more extensive, entrusted to specialized, teams can confirm the results already achieved and definitively lifting all the uncertainties.
Dr. Gabriel Gillyboeuf (research of Jacques Felisat)

Evolution of the town of Castellane

History of urbanism in a small town in the Department.
Castellane, by the evolution of its implementation over the centuries, can make us understand the evolution of towns and villages of our Department.
Before the Roman era was already an oppidum of the Ducelia name; It was on one of the hills that dominate the small plain of Castellane.

The Roman city

The Roman town was called Saline and was the capital of the native tribe of the Suetrii.
The name of salt comes from a source salt, exploited in Roman times and the Middle Age and who was likely to be at a place called Sadha. This source was filled in the 18th century at the request of the farmers-General who then saw possible competition to the gabelle.
The creation of this Roman city has several reasons:
•    pre-existence of a prehistoric place;
•    step on a road already prior to the Roman civilization and which will become a Roman milestone: this small basin is the forced passage of a road between high and low Provence. It is there that we cross the Verdon and the roman bridge shows well.
•    existence of salty sources.
•    may also market regional and administrative center since Saline later became a bishopric.
Most Roman towns are points of obliged passage and steps. Roman to medieval conditions of carriage have changed little. Aerial view of Castellane.
Salt was installed in the basin surrounded by mountains at the junction of the Valley of the Verdon and the stream of la Palud who comes from the North between the current district in the East, a hill to the West, a hill to the North and the Verdon to the South, in the area where the remains of the church Notre-Dame-du-Plan. It is assumed that the city extended to side of the road of Moustiers. It is in this area that many ancient inscriptions were found.
Salinoe was the seat of a bishopric between 439 and 442. He was then transferred to Senez which a Bishop is mentioned in 506. A Charter of the Abbey of Saint-Victor, Notre-Dame-du-Plan was a Priory in 1043, certify that this Church took over from the Paleochristian Cathedral.

The city of the high middle ages

Under pressure from the Moors to the century city, salt will change and location and name.
The inhabitants will take refuge in a natural fortification: Petra Castellana, which will give its name to the city. There are lucky to still have the remains of this set which includes the castrum with atop a church, Notre-Dame-du-Roc, and the fortified town, whose only remaining remnants of walls with round towers, upstream of the north side, and the ruin of a church, Saint-André-duRoc.
The city of the middle ages is this lack of water or the plague, or the fact that cities still tend to go down when the security increases. The fact remains that in the 11th century, the city descends on a hill near the Castellum in what one would call the village. It consists in the 12th and 13th centuries, nearby in the plain, the convent of the Augustinians built in the 13th century and, later, built near the ancient city, Notre-Dame-du-Plan. When disorders will recommence on the occasion of the hundred years war living pass in Provence large companies it then strengthens this new city in 1359 by using the stones of the city from the top. It is at the centre of this new village that rises Saint-Victor at the request of the Trustees due to the fact that the majority of the population now resided in the village.
The city has changed little until the end of the 19th century where the houses have grown along the access roads. In 1834, Castellane has 1,300 inhabitants (twice now); campaigns are fertile, irrigated Plains are rich: these are the plains of La Palud, lists, Notre-Dame and the Lagne.

Rural exodus

From that date, it is the rural exodus. This exodus was slowed somewhat by the construction of the dam of Castillon and Chaudanne, followed by tourism. For fifteen years, it is the influx of second homes that impinge on the agricultural sector and also development of the campgrounds which some are loud well-appointed.
Castellane is a characteristic example of the development of small towns and villages of Provence with the Roman town, the high walled city in the middle ages, the walled city low in the 13th and 14th centuries in which houses are extremely compressed, development along the roads in the 19th century, and for twenty years the burst in all directions and in particular in agricultural areas.
The sight of Castellane, from the top of Notre-Dame-du-Roc allows to confirm and clarify this evolution.
First the sandwiches houses between the walls of the 14th century: the type House is a narrow and high, surrounded on two sides. It typically has three or four floors. On the street, the former stables or opens a wide door. It has often been transformed into garage. Beside a narrow gate on a narrow staircase it also gives which leads to the first floor where there is a kitchen and a room. Above are one or two floors and attic with attics and driers for prunes and figs. It was the home-type of the peasant of the 14th or the 15th century who cultivated the surrounding fields and took refuge in the city. These houses are currently either in stone, is coated with lime.
Along the ancient walls overlooking the rue Nationale and part and on the other it developed more bourgeois houses in the 19th century. They are coated lime sometimes colored with the Tower of white windows. They have balconies which the detail of balustrades is 19th-century Genoese or plaster cornices. This model can be found around the place Marcel Sauvaire interrupted by the remains of the walls of the 14th century towers that pierced windows subsequently.This still tight pace of the 19th-century houses is interrupted and part of boulevard Saint-Michel, on one side by the former convent of Augustins, the other by the former Bishop's Palace and the convent of the Visitation where the Town Hall.
It is by knowing the history of the city that we can discover and decipher the reasons for the shape of these houses.

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