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Castellane, origins and descendants

The milestones group

From the vicinity of Taulanne on the ancient road from Castellane to Digne.
In antiquity and in particular to the Gallo two important routes put in communication the coast and the Southern Alps through the Haute Provence.
One of Fréjus in Sisteron by Riez; the other starting from Cagnes and Castellane and worthy joined the previous in the Valley of the Bléone somewhat before the chapel of Saint-Christol near Malijai.
It is important to note that, between Castellane and worthy this way had a totally different path from the current 85 R.N., except for a short distance near Taulanne.
In its broad lines here are his career: Castellane - col bequeathed, in almost direct ascent (Taulanne or more exactly the chapelle Saint-Pierre) the hamlet of the Maureliere then Senez by left bank of the Asse.
This route through the left bank is very likely to Barrême where the River had to be crossed at Ford.
Barrême in Digne is the old road still well known by backcountry, Chaudon crossing and the opportunity to regain the Vallée de L'asse before worthy by the "doors" passage near Entrages.
Remember that normally erect milestones all 1480 metres along the track, are from large blocks of stone, usually carved in the form of column on a cubic basis. A fifty meter to two meters high they usually carry an inscription engraved giving the titulary of the Emperor in office at the time of their establishment and often some other indications of rehabilitation or distances.
Their discovery, especially in mountainous countries, is rare and outside so those of Taulanne the Department of the Alpes de Haute Provence it that is four or five.
The surroundings of Taulanne terminals have not been discovered recently. We can even say that they were not discovered at all because they have apparently crossed the historic time standing then lying ashore roughly in the same location.

Scholars and historians of Haute-Provence

Also several centuries have excited the curiosity of scholars and historians of Haute Provence and especially those who lived or frequented the region of Castellane.
First, the historian honored mouth that, well that born in Aix en Provence in 1598, spent most of his life at Barrême where he died in 1671. Provost of Santiago from 1633 to 1661, he published his history of Provence in 1664 but the manuscript was ready as early as 1660. His testimony is therefore placed during the first half of the 17th century.
It is then, more than a century later, the Abbot Joseph Laurensi (1719-1808) of Castellane, superior of the Seminary of Senez before 1760. Its history de Castellane was printed in 1774. We can consider that his comments are from the mid-18th century. Attending therefore Castellane and Sandra, he could not that familiar with this portion of the ancient way become over time 'Royal Road'.
After J. Laurensi, we find Elzéard fat-Bourguet (1788-1860). Judge of Castellane, Mayor of this city at one time, he published his study of the Antiquities of the arrondissement of Castellane in 1842. His research are placed between 1819 about and 1840. His study is highly documented with sketches in support. He nevertheless had some difficulties with epigraphy... and with one of the terminals that had been temporarily buried and he could find.
Then in the second half of the last century appear the Honnorat brothers of Digne: Edouard Ferdinand, naturalist, and Désiré Saturnin, employed in railways. In their research, they are assisted to Antoine Guérin (1841-1913), geologist at Castellane. The latter teaches us the speech on his grave by E.F. Honnorat, "had gathered valuable currencies and collected antique medals mainly in the arrondissement of Castellane". He is believed to have been transporting two of the terminals in Digne. Apart from a few mentions in the bulletins of the S.S.L. brothers Honnorat research are published by D.S. Honnorat in 1882 in Epigraphic Bulletin of Gaul under the title "The vicinity of Castellane mile".
Shortly after, the path is traversed and terminals discussed and listed by the Abbot Henry Thédenat. His publication 'Memory on the mile of the branch of the one way that was going to laugh' is from 1886. It concerns all the way from Cagnes. The title is not entirely accurate because the track allowed to laugh only indirectly. At the time the Abbot Thédenat does not linger in our region but it is learned epigrapher and he makes the point on the subject. Eventually Georges Bailhache, Archivist of the Department, is at the Museum of fit one of the terminals (incomplete) still in place and publishes an article on the subject in the archaeological Chronicle of the Bulletin of the S. S.L. from July-December 1942.

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Inscription on the terminals and dating

From Castellane, second per mile, or about 3 km, was marked by two willing terminals, it seems, share and other track near the hamlet of Sionne (in Siounne on the cadastres of the 18th century) is a few hundred metres before the pass of probed at a point where it dominates a very wide panorama to the Southeast. These are the Museum of Digne.
Note that on old cadastres, if there were the bastide of Leco, the pass itself was called everything simply: the passage.
The oldest of these two terminals (the No. 14/15 the nomenclature of terminals discovered across the way) is coarsely carved out a local stone. It is long since degraded. At the beginning of the 19th century, it measured, to the testimony of fat-Bourguet, 1.44 m tall, but some damage at the base have reduced this height. A hole at the top suggests that a cross had been fixed there. Is not whether the Terminal had the usual cubic basis. Registration all develops on the upper part or 0.70 m high. This inscription consists of thirteen lines and ends with the digit II indicating the distance of Castellane.
As much by the wear of the letters than by the fact that it is a palimpsest text, this registration held in check all scholars until the end of the last century, where it was deciphered in some way by H. Thedenat.
In fact it is a Terminal on behalf of Caracalla (M. Kamil. Antoninvs) but high by the care in the year 213 Ivlivs Honoratvs (imperial Procurator). But this first inscription was, less than a century after, partially processed for him add and to replace it with a new text on behalf of the Caesars Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Valerius Maximian.
There are a few variations of detail between the reading of H. Thedenat and V. Lieutaud (catalogue of the Museum of Digne). Perhaps a new study with photographic means would help clarify a few letters, but the general sense is certain.
Nearby Terminal (No. 16 of the Thedenat nomenclature) was carved in a stone of the same kind as the previous. It is also fairly deteriorated and its height is reduced to about 1.45 m. It presents more cubic base.
In time, it has undergone a few avatars: while she was well known since the 17th century, it disappears at the beginning of the 19th century, which causes some confusion with the previous and fat-Bourguet searching vainly. But in 1869 is again marked by the Honnorat brothers while she just be updated.
The Summit appears to have been cut; Maybe had a cross been set at one time.
We had 3 May 1975 satisfaction after him have raised (with difficulty) to discover a new registration. Details of the discovery and the photos were published in no. 276 of the Annales de Haute-Provence. We'll that outline. It is a very massive terminal of 1.80 m high column on a basis of 0.90 m approximately. Partly cleared registration is on behalf of Caracalla — the beginning of Ille century and the same time exactly as the first text of Sionne Terminal (ri ° 14/15). Its dimensions and its good state of preservation make it an archaeological remnant of quality.
Therefore in total four terminals and not five, as he could believe it, who are known on this portion of the ancient way. They were placed:
•    two under the Emperor Caracalla, to 213;
•    one under Probus, less than 70 years after;
•    a terminal of the first series has changed, in 306, therefore a little less than a century after its installation.
The conservation of these terminals is explained course by a happy coincidence, but certainly also by the fact that they had been transformed into oratory, at least at one time by the installation of a cross on their Summit.
On the remainder of the journey to Digne any other Terminal was never discovered.
It will nevertheless retain a curious reference to the Bishop of Senez, Jean Soanen, who during his pastoral visit of June 17, 1703 at Barrême, saw in the village "in the middle of the road a great stone we were assured to having long been a ridiculous object of superstition by remnants of paganism that we took opportunity to fight". The note may apply to a Terminal without registration.
Finally it should be noted for the record the small stone placed on the edge of the road near Chaudon, which bears the scars of six or seven characters engraved on two lines with, apparently, the date of 1739 (?).
Raymond mill

The origins

The information came to us is fragmentary and various hypotheses have been advanced:
•    "Most ancient historians wanted to descend the Lords of Castellane of a cadet of the Royal House of Castile who, having come to settle in Provence, there would have built the fortress of Castellane; "but it seems today established that the existence of this fortress of Castellane (skin Castellana) is earlier than that of the Kingdom of Castile" (dictionary of French families, based on the nobility of the Viscount Rev. Yearbook - 1894).
•    According to the Caïs County of Pierlas, Castellane would ancestors the Margrave of Tuscany, Governors or counts of Provence...
•    H. Lestrées also tells us it has sent down the first Boniface of an another Boniface, Governor of Africa in 424, killed by Aetius in 432... But four centuries hole separates the African of the Castellanais.
•    The historian Artefeuil believed that Boniface Ier was the son of a Lord who had distinguished himself in the fighting against the Saracens at the Fraxinetum (and should not be confused with Guillaume the Liberator).
J. J.M. Féraud and Laurensy are down Boniface Ier of the founder of the city of Petra Castellana. This dynamic citizen allegedly Lacerda Valentinus for Mr. Louiquy, or may be Marcus Matuconius, for Laurensy.
These assumptions meet in a poignant legend reported by P. of Givaudan: "a child of the last Governor of the Saliniens having providentially escaped the rage of the Moors, was raised secretly in a cave by a courageous woman who liked to tell him the misfortunes of his noble descent and his homeland. Has the maturity of age feeling flow through his veins the blood of his illustrious forebears, he proved a fearless warrior and was one of the architects of the total defeat of the Saracens". It was he who would be the founder of Petra Castellana... and the ancestor of the Boniface. This reported legend in 1872 not teaches us anything specific. It belongs more folklore than history.
•    In his memoirs, published in 1924, Boni de Castellane tells: "I made trace a history of my family... And after the Archivist, M. Ravi, Castellane, sovereign princes to their origin, descended from the Kings of Arles who themselves were related to the Carolingians. My vanity could be met". Boni says with humor that his great aunt, the Countess of Beaulincourt regretted that this ancestry remontât not "up to a certain Adam de Castellane, husband of Eve of I don't know what"!
•    According to h. Lestrées (1843) the more probable opinion is that the Lords of Castellane are descendants of Theobald, count of Arles in the IX century, husband of Bertha, daughter of Lothair, King of Lorraine. Thibaut was Governor of Provence during the reign of Louis the blind (CA. 890). One of his three sons, Bertilion had the son Ingilbert and the lineage continued by Pons Arbaud, Petrus Jackson, Pons Pulverel, father of Boniface Ier of the name.Filiation is taking shape little by little but the distant origin remains uncertain.
•    Finally new lights came to illuminate our understanding of the origins of the House of Castellane: thanks to the interpretation of extracted records of the cartularies of Saint-Victor de Marseille (published in 1857), of Saint-Saturnin D'apt (1967) and the study of inscriptions in this last church; thanks Mr. Juigné de Lassigny publications (1912), by Mr. Jean Barruol (1967 - Introduction to the CARTULARY of Apt), Mr. J. P. Poly (1976), and especially by Mr. Uc de Castellane, author of the book "Pages of history mâconnaise and Provençale" (1978).
At the beginning of the 10th century "wealthy landowners, benefactors of Cluny, bathing in a Carolingian world changing, the Arbald marked by a time troubled and thirsty supernatural, are part of the framework of Macon County..." "1 Arbald is inserted into the offspring of one of the twenty-seven families parties of Austrasia, between Rhine and Scheldt, constantly fight against the other, obliged to assert otherwise be eaten, running after wealth to be safe to have independence". "But like all important this time families, the Arbald have links in of avrrec regions and travel extensively." The call of the past, of blood, of the glebe, combat, simply a marriage, will make that an Arbald will leave, leave the Clunysois... This departure represents a break. "It will lead to a sustainable rooting in a captivating country with which descendants of Arbald III will make body: Provence" (Uc of Castellane). The sister-in-law of Arbald III, Raymonde, married Fulk, important landowner in the country of Apt, in Reillanne, riez, Castellane, Valensole (where their son, Maieul, monk of Cluny in 943, captured by the Saracens in 972 was born).
After Arbald III the lineage continues with:
•    Rostang-Arbald and his four sons, Pons-Arbald, Rostang, friend who was Bishop of Senez and Jason Aldean, owner in Castellane.
•    Pons-Arbald, who married Ermengarde, daughter of Eyric (brother of Maieul) and granddaughter of Foucher. Ermengarde brought to PonsArbald extensive rights in the region of Castellane and in addition gave him ten children, nine boys (whose groin was Dodon) and a daughter.
•    Dodon, husband of Galburge, had seven sons, including Pons-Pulverel, Hugues, Bishop of Senez, a Boniface (which was unnoticed) and Pierre, Bishop of Senez after his brother Hugues.
•    Pons-Pulverel, born in 1001, married in 1035, father of three children, Dodon-Pulverel, ter Boniface of Petra Castellana and Pierre.
With the progeny of Arbald III "one sees the focus of the Arbald to move gradually. "With even a foot in the country of Apt, these new Provencal settle now more firmly in the region of Senez and Castellane, both as a result of family legacies through the conquests in the fight against the Saracens specifically" (Uc of Castellane).
One can estimate that the author of the House of Castellane is Pons-Arbald or Pons-Pulverel, father of Boniface Ier, and even postpone far origins as they pass through the country of Apt, the Mâconnais and get lost in the Austrasia. After having emerged from its roots and took a name, a tree is ready to live, flourish, prevail. The point of departure from the House of Castellane lies therefore in our opinion on the lands of this name, at the time where Boniface Ier, sovereign in the barony recognized to 990 (by Conrad, King of Arles and by Otto III, master of the Holy Roman Empire Germanic) took the name of the city where he lived. "This city has not yet its definitive name and is provisionally called Petra Castellana, Castle Rock, where the family name which is adopted" (Uc of Castellane).
Examination of the lineage of Rostang-Arbald at Pons-Pulverel and his sons, become owners then Lords of Castellane or local notables, some highlights are to remember:
•    Three Arbald were bishops of Senez (the proposed transfer to the Episcopal Castellane will be never achieved).
•    Amiel, brother of Pons-Arbald, (1030? 1040): went to the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille a manse he owned in Castellane.
•    Hugues, son of Dodon, brother of Pons-Pulverel (from 1040 to 1060).
•    Stone, the youngest son of Dodon (born c. 1040), Bishop of Senez from 1085 to 1108?
•    Between Hugh and Pierre the episcopal seat was held by Etienne which belonged not to the Arbald lineage.
•    Ter Boniface's fourth son, Jason Aldean, was Bishop of Senez after monk of Lérins.
•    in 1010, Dodon and his wife Galburge donated to the Cathedral Church of Senez of the shares that they had received on the churches Sainte-Marie, Saint John and St. Lawrence "sub castro Petrae Castellanae"
•    Pierre, Viscount de Castellane, the brother of Boniface Ier, third son of Pons-Pulverel (and nephew of Pierre, Bishop of Senez) was probably born around 1045-1050. It would be distinguished by taking part in the first crusade with Raimond of Orange, Castillon Raimbaud, Guillaume de Sabran, Bertrand of piglet etc. Laurensy actually the head of these Provençal Crusaders, who joined the army of the Crusaders of Raimond de Saint-Gilles.
Pierre contributed valiantly to the fall of Antioch with the Lord of Albret and Tortosa with the vicomte de Turenne. He then found himself in the battle fought against Kerbag Sultan of Mosul. "Since that time we lost its trace and is not named in any of the charters of the 12th century. It is probable that he perished in Palestine"(De Lestrées)
The memory of this legendary epic underscored with a certain lyricism by Laurensy, will lead eight centuries later, on November 17, 1861, the municipal Council of Castellane to engrave the names of stone on a plaque on the fountain in the square of the Grave, with 1095 date (which is the Assembly of Clermont and not that of the beginning of the crusade). Pierre participation to the first crusade in the history of the Crusades of P. Maimbourg (quoted by De Lestrées) is not accepted by all historians. Juigné de Lassigny think that this Crusader was Pierre de Castillon and Uc de Castellane wrote "absence of document, no details remain about attending (the Crusades) of the Castellane Arbald".

The lineage of the first Bonifacede Castellane

From 1 Boniface the lineage of the barons de Castellane still contains uncertainties, but at least a certain data: the effective presence of a representative of the family on the lands of Castellane, during nearly three centuries from 1000 to 1262. The inaccuracies result from the fact that the name and the surname of Boniface were widespread. They existed in the House in Tuscany, which could lead to confusion about the origins of the family. They existed in Reillanne (Galburge family, the wife of Dodon) before appearing in the Arbald family. We know also, unrelated to the House of Castellane, Boniface-La-Mole, Boniface de Boislehard, Boniface-Fombeton, Boniface-Landge... In the lineage of Castellane one Boniface over another identification is sometimes difficult. Please refer to the analysis of the dates appearing on the rare acts come to us, or on behalf of the wife, to distinguish the father, brother or son and avoid confusion.
To clarify the narratives, historians have numbered the members of this line, but there is not unanimous advice and counts. The number of the first Boniface is variable according to the authors. For example J. J.M. Féraud mentioned four, five Laurensy, De Lestrées and Uc de Castellane six. Artefeuil pushing the genealogical study beyond 1262 mentions a good dozen of Boniface (until the 15th century). In addition the filiations indicated by Louvet, Artefeuil, Laurensy, De Lestrées, Isnard are different.
In light of the detailed studies due to modern historians, particularly Juigné de Lassigny, E. Baratier, and Uc de Castellane, the filiation the clearest, most comprehensive and least questionable would include from father to son seven barons who have resided in Castellane:
•    Ter Boniface of Petra Castellana (1036-1120?)
•    Petra Castellana Laugier (1066-1145?)
•    Boniface II of Petra Castellana (1086-1166)
•    Boniface III de Castellane (1135-1200)
•    Pope Boniface IV ("Roux") de Castellane (1157-1227)
•    Boniface V de Castellane (1179-1252)
•    Boniface VI de Castellane (called also "laugh") (1209-1278?)
At least per episode they have resided in a castle built outside the walls of the fortified walls of Petra Castellana, at the northern tip of the village. This castle dates probably from the time where the city became independent seigneury, in 990.
The biographical details that we have on the lineage of the Boniface de Castellane are not very numerous. They are based on the mention of their name about various acts of donations, arbitrations or tributes. These acts are in time their role as 'historic' but the data relevant to their personality, their family life, their activity in the city become accurate enough from Boniface v
According to Mr. Z Isnard, ' the Barons of Castellane, invested with sovereign power, possessed only until the end of the 12th century the administration of justice in this part of the Haute-Provence where they established courts and appointed judges. " Even after being forced to pay tribute to the counts of Provence, these powerful feudal lords retained the fullness of the authority they exercised on their vessel diameter classes".

Boniface 1 St

In the foyer of Pons-Pulverel, after Dodon-Pulverel (which the des-cendance extinguished very quickly) and before Pierre "the Crusader", was born in 1036 Boniface, who was to be the first to bear the title of baron de Petra Castellana.In 1089 he married Stephanie, heiress of Puimoisson property. After his son Jason Aldean, as an Oblate to the Abbot of Lérins (also named Jason Aldean), in 1094, he signed at the Château de Roumoules that belong to him, a deed of gift to the Abbey of Lérins Puimoisson lands. An event allows us to assess his personality. He had intervened in 108990 with Fulco Dodo, prince of Calian, and Raymond de Saint-Gilles, count of Toulouse, in the outcome of a dispute between the Abbot of Saint-Victor de Marseille to the Abbot of Lérins about their respective possessions. This honour and privilege suggest that Boniface was "princely" rank and enjoyed a high consideration. It is therefore the worthy 'author' of the House of Castellane.

Laugier

This third son of ter Boniface was probably the only one with descendants and thus to maintain the line.
He was born in 1066 and was married in 1095. We do not know the name of his wife, but we know that he had six sons, including:
•    Boniface II, successor of the line;
•    Fulk, Bishop of Riez 1133 and 1138, who confirmed the donation of the Church of Puimoisson in the Hospital of Saint-John of Jerusalem, signed in 1125 by Augier, predecessor to the bishopric of Riez;
•    Bertrand, Bishop of Fréjus (1132).
The life of Lee was discreet. His name does appear on the donation of 1094 and a deed of sale of the castle of the Grugiere to the Bishop of Apt to 1113.

Boniface II

Eldest son of Lee of Petra Castellana, Boniface II was born in 1096. In 1130, he married Laure, daughter of Pons de Lançon, Lord of Salernes (of the first House of Pontevès). The lordship of Salernes thus entered the House of Castellane. The notoriety of Boniface II asserted itself quickly. The sureties that he was called to give to various agreements evidenced:
•    1122: agreement between Aldebert, Bishop of Senez, his uncle, and Abbot of Saint-Victor de Marseille.1126: agreement between Ramon Berenguer 1 and the Knights of the castles of Saint-Jurs, Aiguines, rooms (or Saiette) in the diocese of Riez.
•    1147: witness of the confirmation by Raimond - Berenger III of the donation of land to the Abbey of the Thoronet.
•    1149: witness to the confirmation of a donation of land to the Abbey of Sénanque.
•    In 1144, during a struggle between Ramon Berenguer the old, uncle and guardian all new count of Provence Ramon Berenguer III, and ELSA, descendant of Guillaume the liberating and wife of Raimond of Baux, Boniface II takes the latter. "It represents, consider, the continuity Provençale and Carolingian face abroad" (Uc of Castellane). Yielding to the pressure of Raimond - Béranger II which does not hesitate to overthrow the towers of Arles and ransack the fields of leases, the Provencal seigneurs are constrained to the oath of allegiance, in 1146. Ramon Berenguer II collects many signatures for his nephew in Tarascon (whose head of Boniface II), worthy and Seyne. Shortly after this tribute, Ramon Berenguer honours Boniface II in him asking to witness his donation of land to the Abbey of le Thoronet.
•    In 1150, Raimond de Baux submits to the comte de Provence and is committed to delivering its castle of Trinquetaille. In 1156, his son, Hugh de Baux, rejects this clause and resumed hostilities, but Ramon Berenguer quickly has the advantage and the peace is signed. Boniface II endorse: the baron de Castellane is therefore unquestionably an estimated personality of the count of Provence

Boniface III

Born in 1135, Boniface III married Adalais (or Adalasie) de Moustiers in 1156. From this marriage were born Boniface IV and Laure, wife of Blacas, Lord of Aups. The toponym Castellane has replaced that of Petra Castellana and Boniface III was the first of the line to bear the name of Castellane.
He was in 1176, guarantor of a signed peace treaty between Alphonse 1 (or 1 Ildefons), King of Aragon, count of Provence, and the inhabitants of Nice, but her feelings of allegiance were soon to know an eclipse. Indeed in 1183 Boniface III refused to pay tribute to Alphonse 1st, arguing (according to César de Notre-Dame) "he held his sovereignty of God and of his illustrious predecessors who had rebuilt the city after him have conquered from the Saracens and had obtained the allegiance of the emperors, Kings of Arles, since time immemorial; that he himself had obtained confirmation of the emperor Frederick (I Barbarossa) and the rest felt pretty strong against anyone who would attack him unfairly and was ready to defend a power based on the most sacred rights to the shedding of blood."
Before this bold attitude, 1 Alphonse decided to raise an army to besiege Castellane. He took Fréjus by storm as soon as he learned that the Bishop Bertrand, brother of Boniface II, was preparing to support his nephew headed his troupe to Grasse where she was greeted by friend and prepares to attack Castellane. Then Maurel, Bishop of Senez, and Romain, Archbishop of Embrun, intervened in mediators and Boniface III resigned himself. He went to Grasse where he gave tribute to 1st Alphonse.
"An arbitral award of Hugues Raimond, Bishop of Riez, reports that Boniface III was killed by Spada, Lord of Riez" (Uc of Castellane).

Boniface IV

Boniface "Roux", born in 1157, baron of Castellane, Lord of Salernes, Villecroze and other places, not much did talk about it. It has even been forgotten by some historians. He however affixed his seal on a deed of gift of various lands of the Templars du Ruou Villecroze and witnessed the donation of the count of Forcalquier to Ramon Berenguer V (count of Provence from 1209 to 1245) by Garsende of Sabran, wife of Alphonse II in 1214.
Orable husband, he is the father of Boniface V and Agnes, Lady of Tartonne and Barrême, who married his cousin Geoffroy Balb, descendant of Pons Arbald.

Boniface V

Born in 1179, Boniface V is an active Lord. In 1226, to laugh, to the death of his father, he made tribute of all its assets to Ramon Berenguer V.
His name appears on numerous acts, for example:
•    1227: confirmation of agreements during a transaction with the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille.
•    1235: acquisition of rights on Tartonne.
•    1240: acquisition of the Castle and the Valley of Fox-Amphoux.
•    1242: agreement with Fougues de Caille, Bishop of Riez, on their respective rights in Montpezat.
•    1249: assignment of the castle of la Verdière Romée de Villeneuve.
Boniface V holds especially a capital place in line by his family life. He married three times:
1.    with Lady of Galbert, in 1200, who bore him a son called Boniface-Galbert, origin of one of two major branches of the House of Castellane.
2.    with Agnes Spata (or Spada) in 1208. Agnès Spata, the family of the Lords of Riez, had a son, Al, from her first marriage. He married Boniface V were born two sons, Boniface VI (said of Riez) and Hugues; and three daughters, Beatrix, Aicarde and Sibille. Boniface VI died childless and Hugues is at the origin of the second large branch of Castellane.
3.    with Parise, which we know only that she made a bequest to the monastery of St. Catherine de Ross, founded in 1255 by Fougues de Caille, Bishop of Riez (Fontaine l ' Evêque).
Agnès Spata had drafted his will in 1242. She died in 1246, then develops around his legacy a bitter and methodical struggle who "oppose for many years Boniface V and his son Boniface VI, says Riez, Bishop Fougues quail supported by Ramon Berenguer V, then by Charles of Anjou" (j. and M. Cru). Augier, son of Agnès Spata, had sold the Bishop his usufruct in Riez, assignment Castellane challenge with energy. After the death, in 1252, Boniface V, Boniface VI will continue to claim fiercely maternal inheritance.

Boniface VI

This first son of Boniface V and Agnes Spata who died childless despite two marriages (first with Alix of leases,) then with Sibille of signs, proved a prominent character, both ardent polemicist, prudent administrator, troubadour of talent and stirring but unhappy warrior. Residents of Castellane owe new statutes in 1252. Boniface is sovereign independent but lively a certain liberal and democratic spirit. It allows residents to carry with them what is theirs if they want to go abroad and sell their property without his permission by paying the trezain. It validates the wills; If someone dies intestate, it declares that its goods will move to his closest heirs. Men can dispense to follow the war less than justifiably...Foreigners who come to settle in Castellane must conform to these articles... (Enacted in the presence of the Knights of Châteauvieux, Roumoules, Soleihas, Méouilles, Bagarris... and the inhabitants of the village and the Castrum, before the notary under Charles I to Castellane).
Boniface VI was early attracted to poetry. He composed "many beautiful poems" in praise of Bellière, Lady of Fos. It baffled in the satire he composed willingly after drinking more than usual, pretending to be surprised by its Backbiting, in his usual refrain "Jeremy?" got dich (Mouth what do you say?) To be admitted to the Court of love, he composed various collections whose best-known deals with the virtuous noble and the noble vicious of Provence! His literary talents earned him inclusion in the life of the Provencal poets, Jean de Notre-Dame.
His court was appreciated by Frédéric Barberousse who wrote poems. In his sirventes, he spared neither his contemporaries that he considered too subservient towards Charles 1st or Beatrix of Savoy with whom it was blurred.
His spirit of independence marked his attitude towards Charles 1 of Anjou. Their relations have developed in three stages:
•    During a period of expectation, Boniface VI intuition to claim the inheritance of Agnès Spata and, without paying tribute to Charles 1st, in 1252, agrees to be witness to the agreements concluded with Marseille.
•    Following a litigious period between 1252 and 1257. A national survey does not infringe Castellane, but Boniface VI plot and is restore La Verdière and Quinson him confiscated (arbitration of saint Louis).
•    Finally broke out the period of hostility army in 1257 to 1262. Boniface VI supports the Marseillais in rebellion against Charles of Anjou 1st. As soon as it finds that the resistance of the Marseillais falters, it prudent to return to his stronghold of Castellane. Soon Charles I who has not forgiven him, an army, camped near Riez and will put siege to Castellane in 1262. When he enters the city, Boniface VI disappeared: he would be away by an underground (departing maybe Saint-Victor). No more was heard talking about him.
Some historians believe that Charles I did stop and decapitate. Others argue that the two rivals were reconciled and Boniface VI accompanied Charles lei in his campaign in the Kingdom of Naples. Another hypothesis is that they met more and that Boniface died quietly in 1278.
The lineage of the barons who owned the lands of Castellane therefore died in 1262. 1 Charles soon to replace the barony by a Bailiwick.
In 1281, Charles II will cede the Castle, residence of the Castellane for two ' and a half centuries, the Augustinian monks.

The offspring

The progeny of Boniface V is extended with many ramifications from the two large branches from Boniface-Galbert and Hugues de Castellane.
It would be unrealistic and unnecessary to attempt here to genealogical investigation of the House of Castellane since 1262.
In the 15th century, there were already a dozen branches. Some became extinct but others have continued to proliferate and disperse in Provence, Perigord or Ile-de-France and even in Belgium. We are currently reaching the twenty-fifth generation at least... Links with our city were close only in the distant past, during two centuries and a half, but it is incorrect to say that the House of Castellane more did, after 1262, unconnected with his birthplace of Haute-Provence.
We find, in effect, for example:
•    riez: Jean, 1418; Melchior, 1540; Claude, 1548.
•    at Saint-Jurs: Honoré, 1418; Horace, 1548; Marc-Antoine, 1597; J. Baptiste, 1756.
•    to Majastres: Jean, 1430; Florent, 1480; Claude, 1596; Henri, 1698; Henri Caesar, 1878.
•    to Eoulx: Reforciat, 1435.
•    to Demandolx: Renée de Cast. Esparron ep. Gaspard de d., Gabrielle's Cast. EP. D stone.
•    in Forcalquier: from the 16th to the 18th century the Castellane-Adhemar (Moissac, Grignan, from Pierrerue...).
•    in Manosque: Jean de Castellane, bailiff in 1468.
The goal is to locate the filiation of the personalities, which since the 13th century, at a time of their lives, in relation to the history of the town of Castellane: Nicolas du Mas-Castellane, baron of Germany, who took the initiative to the headquarters of Castellane in 1586, without success was the son of Honorade de Castellane (wife of Jean du Mas), the heir of Melchior and a distant descendant of Hugues de Castellane. François de Bonne, Duke of Lesdiguières, the last Connétable of France in 1622, was the son of Françoise (wife of Jean de Bonne of Lesdiguières), grandson of Claude de Castellane Saint Juers and descendant, also of Hugues de Castellane.
Jean Baptiste Victor de Castellane - Adhemar of Monteil was Bishop of Senez in 1784.

Bonus in Castellane

Spirit Victor Boniface de Castellane (1788-1862), Marshal of France in 1852, was by the lineage of the Castellane-Novejean, descendant of Boniface-Galbert. In 1861, he was Governor of Lyon. The community of Castellane then invited him to resume law cited in the city. Sensitive to this proposal he declined, Marshal offered his portrait that adorns the room of the municipal Council of our days.
In 1898 a Castellanais delegation led by the Mayor came to the pink marble palace in Paris and suggested to Boni de Castellane, great-grandson of the Marshal to stand for the parliamentary elections in the city where lived his distant ancestors in the middle ages. Lu E three times Member, from 1898 to 1910, after election campaigns that failed not picturesque, Boni discovered and thus traveled a region that he did not know and that the last Boniface of the first line had left seven centuries before. That remains of this episode policy? The story that Boni made himself in his memoirs and comments or the memories of those who lived those moments; a castle whose work, forty years later, embryo will be used in the building of a hospital; a high cross in the center of the cemetery, October 15, 1899, gift of Boni, endorsed by the municipal Council.
For seven centuries the House of Castellane perpetuated the memory of his distant birthplace of Haute-Provence and glorified his name.
As early as the 14th century dispersal of the House of Castellane is largely beyond the Haute-Provence and stretches from Salerno to the Aygalades (near Marseille). Later, by the game of alliances can be found descendants of Boniface-Galbert or Hugues de Castellane in the Périgord, Paris and Brussels.

Former Lords of Castellane

Despite the extinction of some branches (Fos, Andon...) the House of Castellane, whose posterity continues, is one of the oldest in France.
It bears the arms of the first Boniface (and Pierre "the Crusader" would have adorned his tabard): "De gules a castle open, crenellated and masoned sable, ensigned of three towers of gold".
Supports or advocates: two wild with each a Gold Club. Crown: marquis or prince. Cimiez: a savage in half.
The motto of the House of Castellane 'More honor than of honors' is a very respectable profession of faith.
Weapons of the former Lords of Castellane remain inscribed on the coat of arms of several towns or villages in Provence that they were specific: a castle ensigned by three towers to Castellane, Ampus, Peyroules, Saint-Laurent-du-Verdon, Montmeyan, La Verdière, Fox-Amphoux, Moissac, Salernes. a crenellated Tower: Majastres, Mouans, Claret, Vence. a castle flanked by four towers: Germany-en-Provence.
Many members of the House of Castellane reached the highest reputation in all areas. Next to several marshals camp and some 60 of Knights of Malta, some examples belonging to history:
•    The marquis de Montcalm killed at Quebec in 1759 was the son of a Castellane.
•    Vice-Admiral of Castellane-Majastres fought alongside La Fayette and Rochambaud during the war of independence at Yorktown in 1781.
•    In 1788, Alexander Melchior Marie Philippe de Castellane was Chamberlain to the Duke of Orléans.
•    Henri de Castellane Novejean was Ambassador of France.
•    Boniface Louis André de Castellane, lieutenant general of the armies of the King, was prefect of Basses-Pyrénées, master of requests to the Council of State, baron then comte d'Empire in 1810, County-hereditary peer in 1817, marquis-hereditary peer in 1829. He was the father of the Marshal de Castellane, Governor of Lyon and the ancestor of Boni de Castellane.
In the end, the House of Castellane must a share of his undeniable sheen to its very distant origins and especially succession of eminent persons that the generations of this noble lineage have given to Provence and France for ten centuries.
Dr. Gabriel Gillybceuf

Rougon and Castellane family

The testament of Balthazard de Castellane (1605)

While browsing the notarial registers of Rougon, I've seen to revive the village, or rather the 'Community'. This term is rich in content. The 'Community' regulates, manages, under the authority of the consuls and the judge lieutenant bailiff. It passes the leases that set the price of butcher's meat, appoints the guardian of average, buys the grain that will be distributed to the poor.
Inevitably, the Lord is present in the life of the community. In 1605, is Balthazard de Castellane, Lord of quail (by his mother Marguerite) and Rougon (by Marvin of Ambrois wife who held the lordship of his brother Mathieu, 1573); It often lives in Rougon, as it is demonstrated by the many acts he signed in the 'Castle' or 'Manor House' (recently demolished).
In the year 1605, Balthazard is visibly agenda in its affairs. His family is very large.
His last daughter, Marvin, married François de Roux, Lord of St. Lawrence (February 13, 1605). Her dowry is 6000 pounds.
It stops a final account with his son-in-law, "Me Raphael Aymar, lawyer at the headquarters of Draguignan". It was liable to pay a large sum, 13,600 pounds. Finally, he wrote his testament (17 February).
The character of this writing is indicative of its reformed religion: it is free from invocations and donations to the brotherhoods, legacies for masses contained in all wills. But dowries are made (12 pounds) to "12 poor girls to marry places quail and Rougon; 6 books will be distributed to the poor who will be attending his burial"and heirs will perpetually maintain a donation of five loads of wheat pro-poor quail and Rougon and the Hospital de Grasse. This comes after a consideration "on the misery and calamity of the world which mainly civil wars". There is the expression and a generous sense of real sadness.
His wife Marvin he bequeathed all his possessions. It ensures among other things, "all fruits and reactions of the square, terroir and Lordship of quail life during"
Then come the donations made to the children:
•    to Joseph de Castellane, "his son puisne" "the property he owns in the town of Draguignan and its terroir Castle Double and Montferrat" and 13,600 lire owes R. Aymar.
•    to Castellane Pierron, "land, meadows and Lordship of the Castellat said testator has the city and terroir both AIX to Bargemon and all the sum of 7.430 books".
•    Scipio, terroir and jurisdiction to Castellane in furniture and buildings and 3051 books which indebted to the community de Castellane.
•    Jehan Baptiste, various royalties altogether 13,800 pounds.
•    Ditto to Anthoine, and a house in Châteauneuf.
•    in Honoré "inclined and dezireux take the cross of the order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, the said testator bequeathed him the sum required and needed to travel to Malta and receiving orders all the sum of 1300 pounds for its maintenance annually as much as will be in Malta". The payment of a possible "Rahman" is also planned.
As for girls, Marguerite, Lesley, Diane, Françoise Marvin of Castellane, they perceive each 900 pounds, in addition to their dot. Lesley will have 4,800 pounds "to make it equals to the other girls that he has ranked in marriage".
Last comes the eldest, Pol de Castellane: it will be "all other assets, movable and immovable property; fiefs, jurisdictions, rights, actions and debts"returning after him to her child"Lewis". Then follow many details on the succession if there is no "children masles". Finally, a clarification on the name of Castellane: "it is all what the plasse land and Lordship of quail is (.?)" "at their house by the way and law damoizelle Gasparde de Castellane, daughter natural and legitimate Honoré de Castellane, Lord of Andon, grandmother of the testator, and that by Act published damoizelle Marguerite, his mother, entrusted him him and his followers to wear the nickname and weapons of the Castellane said, his grandmother, a so-called penalty of deprivation of said place of quail" (what her children will have to do it too).
Are the testament executors Me Raphael Aymar, "advocat at headquarters of Draguignan and Capp. does Elzéard Brown", his cousin" Faict and published instead of Rougon and in the room of the Castle said Lord testator, before noon, in the presence of messire Honoré Fabre, viquayre said Rougon, Me Allexandre Audibert dict Périer, formerly judge of the city of Moustiers ". Follow the signatures of the parties concerned.
Note that the marriage of Marvin de Castellane contract one of the witnesses is Charles de Barras, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem.
We think that the authority of Balthazard de Castellane was benevolent and conciliatory. His fortune is important (probably modest lifestyle has much). With him, is Protestantism implanted in Rougon? Up to now, notarial archives do provided me no documentary proof. But other sources may provide any other answers.

The popular society of Castellane

On September 8, 1791 "appeared at the registry of the active citizen Jean-Marie de Castellane municipality, which as Chairman of friends of the Constitution established in this city, to comply with the Decree of the National Assembly of July 19, 1791, published and registered in recent days in the district of this city, said on behalf of the company that it will hold its meetings in the chapel of the white Penitents and it fit the Sunday and Thursday's" every week". The society of friends of the Constitution thus took an official existence in Castellane.
This political society had been formed as early as may, 1789 in Versailles under the name of Club Breton. After the transfer of the constituent Assembly in Paris, she sat in the refectory of the convent of the rue Saint-Honoré where its common name of Club des Jacobins. The Patriots including services that could make to the revolutionary cause of compound political groupings of small people favored training in Paris and in the provinces. It was granted to citizens to assemble peacefully and without weapons to address petitions the legislative body or Department and district administrators. This movement was in 1792 accentuated by indoor events and especially by the war (after the declaration of war to the Austria on 20 April 1792). It is probably for these reasons that the society of friends of the Constitution de Castellane, who had been the subject of an official statement on September 8, 1791, appears to have had an activity known only from May 6, 1792.

"Live free or die"

The single registry containing the minutes of the meetings of this door company in mind the motto "live free or die" followed by the first deliberation "six may one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, 4th year of freedom, the citizens of the town of Castellane, municipality of Castellane, Castellane district, Department of Basses-Alpes, are assembled in the Church of the pre-existing Augustinian religious in this city to the effect of form in society of the friends of the Constitution". This session which was attended, in addition to one hundred-four-twenty-nine citizens of Castellane, two Commissioners delegated by the Executive Board of the Department of Basses-Alpes and a member of the society of friends of the Constitution de Digne, is appointed president, three Secretaries and four Commissioners by correspondence. Each Wizard made the oath to be faithful to the French Constitution decreed by the National Assembly and you want to live free or die. Their goals were to maintain the union, to arrive to repel the enemies of the nation and make flower the constitution.
The intoxication of freedom had developed to the extreme the taste of the floor. At each meeting several members climbed up to the rostrum to propose motions sometimes unexciting but expressed in flowing terms of patriotism. The president had invited women to incorporate them as "Friends of the Constitution", what they failed not to do and which earned a speech by Madam President deserving to be reported: "brothers and friends, it is with great satisfaction that we just express our feelings that don't cede nothing to yours for patriotism." So far you have watched as your idolles (sic), but even when you seemed to receive statutes of we, we were your slave and you do look us as a toy which was fun and distract you; for the advice and the business you do count us (sic) for nothing. But today the law makes us all equal and we may express our opinions, would like you, brothers and friends, deny us the pleasure of running to glory?No, believe that we will compromise nothing, both for the courage that the zeal, we want to really deserve your homages (sic) competing with you to maintain the Constitution, we are ready to show the enemies of the State they have more enemies to fight what they do believe; We will be the first to walk to the champ de mars to gather with you des Lauriers. They come these bold seek to defeat us! If one deals with evil we don't want to be that for the enemies of the homeland. "

Sessions

We took the floor to read the letters of other companies of the Kingdom, to ask the aggregation of society to those worthy, Mane, Grasse, Manosque, Aix, Marseille and Draguignan, then to the Jacobins in Paris. We voted motions to instruct the Management Board of the Department due to the proximity of the border rifles, we did adopt monitoring measures to the post because the unpatriotic sentiments of the "demoiselle Périer, so-called Taulane, committed female audit office". It also requested that it spoke Provençal sessions, "the bulk of the Assembly, primarily the class of farmers not too well including the French language". It adopted the motion inviting priests not sworn to the oath within six days under penalty of expulsion of Castellane, and also inviting the nuns of the Visitation to go to constitutional mass.
Slander and denunciations were in large numbers within the company. Several sessions were devoted to the fate of Balthasar Lieutaud, Commissioner of the King near the District Court, accused of having hosted "the proud Aristocrat Sabran" emigrated to Puget and helped to change its assignats (may be fake said some) compared to cash, making depreciate up to 40 percent these papers; accused also have cornered a barrel of gunpowder which had been entrusted to him in 1789, as consul by the wing Chief Chailan de Moriez; to have supported refractory priests, Monsignor de Ruffo Bonneval, Bishop of Senez, at his trial; to alter the draw of the "lists of le Verdon", to assign itself the better part and being absent to not attend the Fête de la Fédération.
The influence of the popular society of Marseille was considerable; each letter read at the podium result in passionate discussions. That of July 7, 1792, by which the Marseilles company threatened the company de Castellane to withdraw its approval, ended in a violent Brawl. In September Commissioners were sent Marseille as well as a member of Toulon to rekindle patriotism in the Basses-Alpes. Following this visit it renewed the office and the Commissioners of the position monitoring; the reading of the public papers made at each meeting. In September also began the passage of the battalions led on the edges of the Var.
"Citizen soldiers" were submitted to the company, including the almost all of the ter battalion of the 91st infantry regiment which had just crossed the snowy mountains of Allos in tragic circumstances, not to their salvation to the relief provided by the inhabitants of this place. It also saw the 2nd Battalion of volunteers of the Aude. Massena, Commander of the 2nd Battalion of the Var, made a speech at the podium following which it adopted the motion to a bonfire in their honour and then sang a patriotic song. In November it was "the hymn of the Marseillais" which ended each session.

Place in the municipality

At the same time the company interfered with the municipality which all acts were monitored closely, to invite her to tax bread and meat because of the arbitrary increase their price and the 'coalition of the merchants'. She asked that the manufacture of bread was monitored, and mills. The overexcitation of the exprits grew, the denunciations were even more numerous. The day of the Epiphany, the trustee Attorney interrupted service of the Vicar, which created a bright incident. It denounced the innkeepers who practiced prohibited games. The company, with no resources, asked an imposition of five soils by Member to meet its expenses and help the purchase of a hood and two pairs of shoes for volunteers in poverty. She appointed Commissioners to investigate the sale of copper, prohibited by law, when the sale of the personal property of the émigrés Djame Charles and Pierre Chailan (copper be used to strike the coin to replace the assignats nobody wanted more). To maintain the patriotic spirit, she decided that the meetings would be more numerous. A tree of the brotherhood in the milieu.de was planted above place des Augustins which took the place of the fraternity name.
The economic situation of the people was disastrous. Invitation was made to the municipality to establish a Baker who sell exclusively to the poor of this town a bread taxed under the tariff, the municipality covering the difference. The problem of the volunteers became a major concern for the company. It was forced to appoint Commissioners to join their bodies most of the district national volunteers and limit the jurisdiction of the Commissioners said the extent of the canton. It was necessary to open a subscription to raise funds to buy two volunteers for the waiver to replace, and ask the Department to provide two guns per battalion.
The register of the popular society of Castellane ends 7 may 1793 by new informations about bread and sold more expensive wheat that the tax, and by a petition sent to the municipality of Castellane to ensure the supply of meat, especially sheep. The last page is a list of members who had acquired "graduates of affiliation" printed at Digne in Guichard, issued for the sum of ten floors assignats.
At this time where ideas were evolving quickly enough, well understood caution commanded not to leave traces of what had passed before Thermidor. It can be assumed that the society de Castellane has destroyed documents that might affect the inhabitants of the city after the fall of Robespierre. This would explain the absence of post-7 may 1793 manuscripts.

The arms of Castellane

The first indisputable representation of the arms of Castellane is provided by Boniface IV bearing seal, on the reverse, a castle embattled three turrets with a central keep. Boniface IV had put the seal on a deed of gift to the Knights Templar, in 1205. Sigillaires arms are also mentioned by De Ruffi (history of the counts of Provence - 1613), and by Honoré Bouche ("Sigillum Domini Castellana Bonifacii"). They are reproduced by photographs, in the work of Mr. Uc de Castellane (Pages of history mâconnaise and Provençale 1978). This precious document served basic drawing.
The Castle (or tower) in three turrets is the usual heraldic symbol of any walled city. The choice of this coat of arms for Petra Castellana has therefore nothing mysterious. The Laurensy prior, in 1775, thought that the three towers of the Castle referred to the three parties which comprised the city of 11th century: Rupes, Castrum, Burgum. Doctor Martin-Charpenel was correct to write: "If the hermetic symbolism of the Heraldry is somewhat probing, it must not make say everything you want".
In the 13th century the barony of Castellane has not only its own laws and customs but also its coat of arms, that of his Lord, who will remain the Bailiwick, then the viguerie and the members of the House of Castellane (with, of course, over the alliances in the progeny various perfectly legitimate differences or variations).
The coat of arms of the city was itself the object of various shades:
•    "De gules a castle of gold", in H. mouth (1664).
•    "De gules a crenellated Tower, three turrets of gold lace and masonry of sand", Girault de St Fargeau (1844) and Malta Brown (1862).
•    "Of gueulles to a crenellated Tower of three turrets between two fleurs de lys and sustained one, all or; the tower and turrets Louvered and walling sand".
The close correlation between the coat of arms of the city and the arms of the House of Castellane, issue of Bonniface I", explains why the various Lordships which belonged to this family have the same emblem, for example Montmeyan, Moissac (close to taverns), Salernes, La Verdière, Daluis... Around 1150 Louis VII King of France creates the Blazon semy of fleurs-de-lis (featured on the Philippe III sidesaddle in 1275). In 1376 Charles V reduced to three the number of Fleur de lys, to symbolize the Holy Trinity on weapons of sound very Christian Kingdom.
While Charles VI ruled the France in 1411, Marie de Blois, widow of Louis 1, leader of the counts of Provence of the second House of Anjou, and his son Louis II decided to pay tribute to the loyalty of the Bailiwick from Castellane to the counts of Provence. They give the city permission to Chief of the coat of fleurs de lys of gold on a field of azure. Therefore the castle is Argent and gules field.
In the Kingdom of France three flowers of Golden Fleur-de-lis award distinguished until in 1809 "good cities" (Bourges, Rouen, mills, La Rochelle etc.) which the mayor had the privilege to attend the coronation of the Kings of France at Reims. Decision of Marie of Blois to Louis II in favour of Castellane obviously lacked the same scope.
In 1696 in Castellane, capital of sénéchaussée, an office of arms was responsible for monitoring the implementation of the edict of Louis XIV forcing Commons, against payment of a fee, to register their arms in the Armorial General of France placed in the custody of c. d'Hozier. Castellane neglected to register, but retained its respectable image. We know that the Revolution of 1789 "abolishes the emblems pertaining to feudalism, pursuing them a noble character the true coat of arms has ever had" (Robert Louis). Symbols of dubious value then replaced the purest armorial. Under the first Empire cities found their arms and return to the coat of arms of the past was confirmed after 1848.
Without preventing, alas, the flowering of free fantasias on labels, stickers or decorations of junk, it is with respect of the symbolic spirit and historical authenticity that after 1946 modern heraldic art has focused on the definition and design of departmental and communal coats of arms. The coat of arms of Castellane are ten centuries; It is logical, sober, harmonious and without Enigma


Saint-Pancrace - Digne
Digne
Bléone Valley - Digne
Digne
Provence

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