1 week in the Gorges du Verdon= 2 campsites to discover the richness of this incredible site
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1 week in the Gorges du Verdon= 2 campsites to discover the richness of this incredible site
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Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
Castle on the Roc de Castellane (977) and enchatellement of the populationAlthough removed from central power by the sons of Boso, count of Arles, one of the Magi, the son of Griffin, County of Apt, will give three branches that when spreads the use of family names, will become the Castellane and the Ferraud in the Valley of the Verdon, the Glandèves in the Valley of the Var.There are also among his people Lords of the valleys of the Tinée and the Blore. Castellane, for their part, ascribe an immense area that encompasses a large part of the region of the Middle Verdon ; It is western border, on the left bank of the River, including the torrent called Baou, with Rougon, and overflows on the right bank, with among others Taloire, Robion and Trigance. Five years after the expulsion of the Saracens, Pons-D'arbaud and Aldebert established on the platform of the Roc de Castellane (alt.900 m) the first castle, safe strategic position. A large limestone table trimmed with traces of development, seems to indicate its location near the chapel Notre-Dame-du-Roc and the later built tank clans a crevices of the rock. In 977, a Charter calls him "Para Castellanal", literally "rock chatelaine", name which, less than 150 years after, keep more than his word to refer to both the place and manorial family which employs him.
Despite the power of it, presumably the little provided the material life amenities work, besides the great lords of most favoured lands, as the princes of Antibes, live clans a simple rectangular Tower, while most secondary castles which will settle in the region as the reconquest of the ground will include a unique piece and moiré will be drawn up in dry stone.
To better ensure control of the rural population (the one who lives the Sinaca oppidum as dispersed in the surrounding countryside) and the collecting of gre or force, safely, at the foot of their Castle, Pons-D'arbaud and Jason Aldean introduce one of the first urban medieval speakers, the "castrum" (or fortified settlement). Their policy is thus participating in a movement that will become mainstream in almost of the Provence, and known as the enchatellement. They organise this castrum on the plateau wedged between ubac rock South, the Hill of the greenhouse to the North (alt. 1300 m). Tilted North to the South and vaguely hexagonal, field measures nearly 250 m in its dimensions. The East and West, it ends with a steep slope. At the foot of the western slopes, the village, two centuries later, will be installed at the edge of the plain. The eastern slope tumbles on the ravine said today's lock.
PopulationFor lodging, the thus collected population must to build huts of stones dry, covered with branches, measuring less than 3 m long and 2 wide, rectangular or iron horse. One sees the remains of such houses or 'huts Fund' in what remains of castra of the same time or even later, as the first Taloire (at the top of the Saint-etienne Ridge), nine of the Barris Castle or the first Levens, above the left bank of the ravine of the Estoudeou. Despite its archaic, this mode of building of rural dwellings will continue in the region long after the Lords will have built the second generation of castles... About the first settlement of Castellane, Laurensi noted already in his time: "there are no traces of houses, except of the priestly house, because it is in the cemetery, which is a sacred land that no one can cultivate. "We see only enormous heaps of stones ca and bed, on the limits of each property". That is, already in the 18th century, the location inhabited since the high middle ages was transformed into vegetable gardens.
The primitive rampartNorth of the plateau, the small depression that separates it from the hillside of the greenhouse, deep just 10 metres on average, is easy to cross. Also from the 11th century, this side of the castrum hides behind a rampart... Is - this one we see a beautiful pan (long about 130 m according to the cadastre of 1834, 90 m) overcome by the edge of the plateau, before you fall back to the East and West of the old village (total length of identifiable remains, 22.5 m according to the cadastre, 190 m from February)?... Holes of niches and various openings, but loopholes almost also in oriented shooting, up or down, either laterally, this wall is heterogeneous insofar as in many vertical cuts (maybe also horizontal in the best preserved height portions) breaking its continuity. However, on the whole, all portions are a way of very close construction: stones of grey limestone (sometimes a few others have a beautiful red ochre, either isolated or spread over a seat) enough carefully squared but not upright, assembled in rather regular Foundation for small and medium height, average joints with little wedges. In general the internal cladding is well preserved, unlike the exterior cladding.
To the West, in the part of the rampart in return, three stones broken decorated with bosses to narrow edging, indicate the proximity of an angle.Exceptionally, the internal cladding is prepared, suggesting a gate tower, perhaps this "door of Rome" including J. Laurensi claims that it has nothing remarkable if its strength, as it was still high enough at the time, although it was stripped of its most beautiful stones to build, clans the village, the Bell Tower of the new parish church Saint-Victor.
On the side of their fortress of the Roc, to better ensure control of the population, Pons Arbaucl and Jason Aldean will create one of the first urban medieval speakers, Petra Castellana. Holed niches, and deadly, the still standing bulwark uses a more ancient wall as a foundation. The turn of the former fortified settlement, St. Andrew's Parish Church, 13th century, is the only building that still in part; the wild vegetation has invaded its single nave and apse in a semi-circle, which was probably covered with an apse. In the South side wall, open two beautiful doors broken arches and three slots of lighting in double crash.
DatingBy his appearance, in particular because of the reuse of ancient stones, the rampart is not easy dating. As full semi-circular towers flanking it to the outside (nine counted in Laurensi, seven according to the cadastre), in in principle, are not built similar full flanking until the 7th century about; towers and when it will start to build towers, in the 14th century, their interior will be generally hollow.
Before the complexity of data, Paul-Albert February, great contemporary figure of archaeology and history Provence, concludes cautiously: "I don't see dated construction which can be compared to these walls. The difference in technique with what known by the rest of Provence invites earlier postponed the date of the wall of Castellane. It must take into account yet the archaism of mountain regions and the fact that between military and religious structures, could be a lag. It is therefore necessary to wait that searches be undertaken on this site to disprove or confirm the hypothesis which seems currently the best: the visible enclosure is that of the village in the 10th century.
Yet we can also consider a more recent dating of clams century probably (like all of the vestiges of the old fortress then commanded by officers of the County, especially the long wall, crenellated, which descends from the rock, on the East side, until the ravine (the lock). Firstly because it happens nonetheless to meet full flanking towers at the XIV s.; they take the role of foothills somehow: applied against the wall, she serve him support and stiffen it, a bit like the semi-circular full Tower, which was at the tip of the spout of the castle of Peyroules. Especially because a new element is to be considered: its western third, the wall presents a uniqueness that no one had reported so far: while inside the book, South side, a portion, located at it is a rupture in its continuity, is based on a few older externally assises, North side, its base has lost its facing to a height of 1 m and a length of 3 m approximately. Singularity which has helped Jean-Claude Poteur, author of this observation, identification of a front wall facing, makes everything from small-format, wide joints, without shims, some seats being stones diagonally (in demi-arete of fish). It is obviously a first wall. The "current" rampart used it as Foundation after it have thickened by donning it additional siding... Question when was this primitive wall remains.
Castle on the oppidum of MoustiersFor their part, parents of the Viscounts of Marseille settled in Riez, built a castle on the Saint-Maxime oppidum and capture the region giving it to eastern border the right bank of the torrent of Baou. The first of them whose archive name is a woman: Adalgarde, widow of a Lord of Riez which we don't know about. Founder (or renewing?) of a convent of nuns, she attends January 6, 1004, in the company of his sons, including the eldest Gérin, the election of the Abbess of the monastery. In October 1011, his sons make donation of Esioublon to Montmajour Abbey of Rhone Provence; his presence as a witness means that she still to this date, but probably also saw that she has already made the sharing of heritage. To 1015, Gérin, brother Jason Aldean, their wives and their children, including Guillaume, render to the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille Auveine and Lagnes districts. A little later, Gerin, deceased, is called "Prince of Riez" clans an act by which his widow Richilde and his four sons, including lsnard, the eldest, and Guillaume, give to Saint-Victor vines to Gonhiron.
Gerin died, his eldest son Isnard succeeded him at the head of his many possessions, in particular of the high Lordship of Riez, which, however, was detached the eastern part as the seigneurie de Moustiers, in favour of the younger son. Therefore, in 1037, Guillaume adds to his surname the toponym "de Moustiers": in the acts of the counts of Provence, a document dated May 26 of this year carries multiple signatures including that of "Guillaume de Moustiers, brother of Isnard", and another, "Guillaume de Moustiers and his brother Isnard. As a Lord of this row qualifies the name of the oppidum, this means that his family is already erected a castle.
Moustiers... Why this name?Around 460, Faustus, Abbot of Lérins, was proclaimed Bishop of Riez. His friend Sidonius Apollinaris, who entered orders ten years later, in the meantime composed a poem of Thanksgiving to the Bishop Fauste. about a journey to laugh "some time ago", it tells the Bishop, solitary and meditating in a framework that it outlines eight verses (out of a total of one hundred twenty-eight), a landscape of caves, cliffs and Marsh. As early as the 16th century, those historians who know the region, such as Simon Bartel and Honoré Bouche, have located this wild landscape in the territory of the lordship of La Palud: on the left bank of the Verdon, shortly before the mouth of the Gorge, the site of Saint-Maurin slack from the swampy meadows and a dozen caves at the foot of impressive vertical bars.
Here, in the described landscape, it does only campe single anchoress, his friend Faustus, Bishop of Riez, who comes to collect, and anyone else. The short stint that alludes and the conclusion of the poem do lend to no confusion: "you lead a life rude clans burning Syrtes and their inhospitable solitudes in a marsh at the greenish silt or rather in the retirement of black rocks where the deep caves keep, off sunset, eternal darkness; or whether the long chain of the Alps, with its steep cliffs, which trembles before you, anchoress, when you drops short sleeps on the grass frozen whatever you do, wherever you are, you'll always be for me Faustus."
Concerning the origin of Moustiers and its name: Rostaing, son of Garac; ancestor of the family of the Castellane-Faraud-Glandèves yields a manse located Thorame, Église Sainte-Marie "in Moustiers" (in Monasteriumi"). If the term "Monasterium" had designated a religious community still in activity, the donation would have made to the "Sainte-Marie monastery". As a result, that in 1009, Sainte-Marie is only a church, while the word "Monasterium" has already become the name of the territory. Because the CARTULARY of Saint-Victor records the donation, we can deduce that the monastery which gave its name to the territory was probably a subsidiary of Marseilles Abbey, or everything at least a small independent convent which it had recovered the titles. We know little more the territory itself. Note, however, that, contrary to what will happen fifty or sixty years later, this donation does not mention "Sainte-Marie in the crazy villa in the castruml of Moustiers". We can therefore assume that it is the oppidum located on the rounded Summit today called "the COE of Quinson", between the ravine of Notre-Dame and ravine said Riou, who took the name of Moustierse. And that it is at the side of the mountain crowned by this always inhabited oppidum, the princes of Riez were founded (or restored?) on a wide flat area, perhaps as early as the end of the 10th century, a parish church: Church Sainte-Marie precisely.
The Moustiers give St. John's Church at the Abbey of Saint-Victor de MarseilleIn 1030, Isnard, who thus inherited the seigneury of Riez, the young count of Provence Bertrand, in a punitive expedition against the Fos and leases, in the company of almost all the aristocratic families of Haute-Provence, with the notable exception of Castellane. Later, his son Raimond will be Bishop of Nice (1050). But what happens between 1037 and 1039? This year, at the bottom of a donation made in conjunction with the Viscounts of Marseille and signed in presence of Richilde, Gérin widow and mother of Isnard and Guillaume, and business woman, is the signing of Guillaume de Riez ("Villemus Regensil"). Have groin passed away, leaving the lordship of Riez in his cadet? You might think if, during a meeting held in Arles in March 1041 (i.e. two years after) Isnard de Riez was among the "noble Knights" of the entourage of the last counts of Provence of the initial line, the brothers Joufre and Bertrand. Whatever it is, fifteen or twenty years later, Guillaume well styled "prince of the land of Riez" in the Act by which it will give to Saint-Victor Saint-John Church.
The seat of the parish is starting to attract within its walls, around the Church Sainte-Marie, let down residents of the oppidum and peasants working on nearby farms such as the Vals and the edges of the Verdun. In 1052, the Bishop Bertrand and Canon Riculfe, representing the two largest families of the diocese, it the Riez, Moustiers, that one the Pontevès-Spada, are a collegiate church of the Sainte-Marie church "in the castrum called Moustiers". Giving, the first, the qualifier of "castrum" at Moustiers, the text suggests that on this date, Metropolitan has a Castle near the new habitat, in any case that it is fortified.
Marseille AbbeyMarseille Abbey, that the terrible crisis of the previous century had very proven, was found at that time prosperity and prestige. After him of other donations in other places, Guillaume which, while keeping the lordship of Moustiers under its authority, thus became Guillaume de Riez, due to the premature death of his elder brother wants to install it (or the return) at Moustiers. But the collegiate church is still fulfill its function, with the likely blessing of the chapter. The Lord does not want to offend to it, which has too many relatives and faithful. He therefore gives Saint-Victor, with various goods and rights, another Church, under the castrum, dedicated to Saint John, Act passed in 106.1 and 1079.
Whence this church? A Charter from Cluny 909, enumerating the properties that had been the domain of the parents of Mayeul, Abbot of this monastery, among others cited the "villa Ardas" with its Church of St. John.
Poly sees a terroir of Moustiers, today called "Hert" (armas, in Provençal: wasteland), overlooking the right bank of the Mayor, and which would have included up to the Church of St. John, on the other side. So to explain what we see now in this building: certainly very mutilated and converted into a barn, it is without apse, has perhaps never been vaulted, but remain remains (stone worked with the hammer, regular device) and especially a plan found rarely as complex in a church in the second half of the 11th century.
In July 1089, Pope Grégoire VII confirmed the possession of this "cella" in Saint-Victor, "cella" that the son of Guillaume de Riez, to 1090, have in turn: they assign it, on the one hand, the Mont-Saint-jean, "the Hill than des Quatre Chemins"; that which today dominates the crossroads from St. Croix and Riez - on the other hand, a domain that mentioned localities to locate South of the land surrounding the Church, the ravine of Embourgues to Melen and Peirengue.
It will have to wait until March 7, 1096 to meet again, in the archives, the name of Guillaume de Moustiers, but it will then be son aillé of Guillaume de Riez and, consequently, of the second dynasty of the Lords of Moustier.
Notre-Dame de Palude and the Château-Neuf of the barris (before 1062)
The Carolingian villa became the nucleus of a metropolitan area that were around the House of the owner, a number of smaller farms, the Victorians high in the middle of cultivated land. A villa could give birth to one of our villages, as Valensole. But more often, between the end of the 10th and 12th century, groups will operate on strategic sites. The new masters, laymen or clerics, consent of course to the presence on their land of the peasants of the oppidum or scattered in the countryside, but deny them the right to assert themselves to other wildfires, and grow, by persuasion or by force, to stand under their "protection", i.e. to accept new links of subordination. They are going to succeed in framing the population growth and agricultural activity covering the Provence of a network of places of worship, then of castles when, on the occasion of the Gregorian reform second half of the XI century), the Bishops will have got their hands on the churches.
What of Moustiers?The Moustiers, for their part, will create several churches and castles. In the eastern zone of their domain, a certain number of habitats co-exist on the territory of the existing communes Châteauneuf - La Palud: in addition to the pre-Roman Rougon oppidum (today "the ants"), found trace on the Summit and the western flank of the Barris on the top of Meyreste, the Puy Eycharme, Counier, etc. There are also around a marshy plain habitat dispersed this "Villa" that will include the donation of 1062 (in the neighborhood of "12flopita126", the digging of a trench, in November 1964, resulted in the discovery of four or five Gallo-Roman tombs terracotta).
On a promontory (alt. 935 m) which dominates the marshy plain, the Moustiers build (or restore?) the parish church. Like most small network of the first Romanesque buildings, it probably has a single nave, covered in frame, with a semicircular apse, vaulted apse; a Bell Tower is adjacent to the end of the nave, near the junction with the apse. These churches, that so characterizes their Bell Tower, retain their parish vocation beyond the creation of the first castles, until the founding of the second generation of places of worship, whose implementation in the shadow of the Dungeon will lead to the strengthening of seigneurial influence. Another feature of the first parish churches: they aggregate their walls of the cemetery, which will be able to stay there even after habitat has abandoned its original location to the Castle.
The BarrisOn a nearby Summit (alt. 1 143 m), said today "the Barris', limestone Ridge that stretches from East to West in the wake of the oppidum of Fourras (the uppermost platform width: from 10 to 15 m), the Moustiers built a"New Castle". At the foot of the cliff on this castle, behind a dry stone walls, they will organize a habitat in the form of constructions of dry stone also, on an area of 30 x 40 m elliptical configuration, and there gather peasants from the surrounding area; at the same time, they will withdraw to the oppidum its function of fortified village. When the castle is mentioned for the first time, in 1062, it is already divided into eight parts, its construction is therefore a few years earlier. One of then (all parents or followers of the Moustiers) assigns to the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille "one eighth of the Château Neuf», both in the building as in"villa and throughout the territory of the Castle": stated castelli (and castel, term which, joined with villa, suggests that on this date, the Lords have not yet made to the enchatellement of the population.)" On the other hand, there is no reference to the Church, but fifty years later (1114), Bull of Paschal II specify that it belongs to the bishopric of Riez and not to the heritage of the family of Marshal (a Moustiers) the episcopal chapter (and we learn incidentally that it has to holder "Notre-Dame de Palme").
Topology and archaeology of the new chateauA speaker defended this platform; poorly maintained, it was in places dry stone (to the East and North-West), places masoned (to the West) and thick then 0.75 m. drystone part is itself assembled sometimes in large blocks of type cyclopean walls, sometimes much smaller rubble. As the walls masonry, what remains is buried and the appliance not visible.
A Dungeon rectangular, about 12.30 m long and 7 m wide, fully Museum, stood at the highest point.
A castle church? On the edge of the enclosure, landlocked clans its western wall, remains the base of a rectangular building of East-West axis. width, 5 m;length approx. 8 m; thickness of the North and South walls, 0.60 m. only the internal cladding realizes yet, built in means regular device, face drawn up the needle and thin mortar joints.
East of the Summit, an extension of the ridge in the direction of the Fourras, thins and becomes steeper. between the etrecie Ridge and the platform of the Summit, a ditch, landscaped small collar, isolates it.
To the North, a cliff then a steep slope along the top, above the source of the Vallonge, and overlooks the eastern part of the Châteaneuf Plan.
To the West, the Summit extends into a small tray that has traces of drystone habitat, and then descends steeply sloping on the collar of the Croix-de-Châteauneuf: it is a "lapiaz" (strata of limestone outcropping in the ground plane, with strong chemical erosion by water). Along the slope, the undergrowth and pine hiding another habitat. This one, more sparse but of the same type that the precedent that it prolongs, suggests a first occupation, towards the end of the protohistoric period (a few hundred years BC.).
To the South, at the edge of the Summit and supporting, a small cliff overlooking a rocky table; It tilts toward the South, and then falls steeply on the Courchon Valley and the Creek of le Brusquet which, further, through the swampy plain of La Palud. Building, East and West, on this cliff, the bulwark of dry stone, now collapsed and dispersed, locked the habitat; at the centre of a clans crevices a large rock that emerges from the bushes, landscaped, served of silo or tank.
Churches and primitive castles of Aiguines, rooms and Saint JursIn the same way and for the same reasons, the Moustiers and their followers will still build during the X century primitive castles of Aiguines, rooms and Saint-Jurs; the precise dates of their construction are approximate and their traces on little obvious field, but their confiscation in 1126 by the comte de Provence will confirm their existence.
In the first half of the century, the texts together names of Aiguines and rooms without differentiate them. To 1021-1044, the Church of our Lady "the place or the villa named Aquina or Salera" having damaged by fire, brother Isnard, monk of Saint-Victor de Marseille, it was repaired. The day of his consecration, Aldebert gives various lands to this church and Saint-Victor. In 1038, the same Aldebert ceded to Saint-Victor his aleu, ' which is called Aquina or Salera", indicating that there own throughout the villa, with the exception of five Victorians. This villa extends the Ford road Maurice (guado Maarisco) and nail Ridge (manly monlis in the Northeast, at the source of Garruby (Cahtbio) to the Southwest, along the Verdon to the Ford above North-West. Thus specified limits indicate this time it comes to the territory that would become that of the former village of rooms (noye towards the Lake of Sainte-Croix, 1974), but it is said nothing of the confines of the Southeast, in the direction of the current territory of Aiguines. In December 1053 yet, when Jason Aldean is again offering land and vineyards at the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church, the Act specifies that it is located in the villa of the room.
Castle of AiguinesOn the occasion of the consecration of the Church of our Lady restored, "Isnard of Aiguines" gave him also the land, named, but rarely identifiable places today: Mariana, Carambant (Garruby?) Amigdalarios, while other characters give land and vineyards in Peracelam, Cataliosco, Crucem (future St. Croix?) etc. The presence of this 'Aiguines Isnard"may imply that there is this moment, a castle in Aiguines, hypothesis that reinforce the presence of a"Pons of Aiguines"during a donation in 1035 by Guillaume de Moustiers to the Priory of Saint-Michel de Cousson.
This chateau of Aiguines is, it seems, Northwest of the chain of margins, the rounded top of the "Puy" ("le Puits" on the map IGN alt.1 056 m) where, under bushes and pine trees, we can guess remnants of dry stone enclosures. Insulating Le Puy to the East and Northeast, a Valley separates it from the chain of margins, that ends at the North ridge of varnish, and which is the left bank of the gorges du Verdon. From the Summit of le Puy, a path leads to the col of D'illoire, and on the left ridge of varnish, tumbles to the Verdon, which it crosses at Ford to drive Château Neuf up the right bank of the river and the ravine of Mortmain. To the West, Northwest and North, le Puy dominates abrupt or steep sloping edges of a vast basin"... The presence of Guillaume de Moustiers in the donation of 1038, with his wife Helen, his parents Raymond (future Bishop of Riez), Ricolfus, and Murat, priests, his knights Pons Arbert and Taxil, implies that, if the Castle already exists, it is held by a parent or a loyal supporter of the Moustiers.
Castle des Salles"Nevertheless the delimitation of the terroirs of the rooms and of Aiguines, and fixation of the toponyms still ask some time: in 1053,"Guillaume of Aiguines"indeed include three donors to the Church of Saint - Jean - Baptiste of Aiguines", various lands, especially at a place called "La Frênaie" (Fraixineda) or the confirmation of the possession of Saint-Victor by Pope Grégoire V States, in 1079, than the Priory of Notre-dance and Saint John of Aiguines is called Les Salles.
The chateau des Salles seems have been the subject of no enactment of 1126, which announces its confiscation: on the current territory of the town of needles, pieces of walls made of some mossy stones, on the edge of the area known as "Villevieille", can pass for its only remains.
Other charters shall appoint two churches in the territory of Aiguines even: Saint-Pierre, next to which will be a new castle when the mir' century, the first site will give up to settle at the foot of the Puy, and Saint-Victor, who would be at the origin of the parish church of the village today. Finally, the Abbey of St. Victor receives another Church in 1063, varnish, including Bishop Augier Michel confirms in 1098 the possession by the Abbey, but which seems not to have left traces.
Saint-JursThe territory that is called Saint-Jurs was probably an important villa, and the Saint-Georges Church flanked by its cemetery, a national parish. It is perhaps the population of villa and independent farms sharing the rest of the territory, which found refuge on the large oppidum of Castillon... Son of Arbert of sandeel, owner of vast estates in Salernes and in Haute-Provence region, inter alia in Trigance, this Aldebert which made donation of the villa of the halls at the Abbey of St. Victor in 1038 and 1053, appears again in a Charter of 1090, but as Lord of Saint-Jurs, which means that this date a castle stands at the eastern end of the Valensole plateau, on the foothills of the Montdenier greenhouse. At the top of the Huby (alt 285 m), from which descends the ravine of la Roque, there remains nothing of the building which, without doubt, has stood, only a dry-stone enclosure surrounds a small nearby Summit (alt. 1238 m). To connect the first Château de Saint-Jurs to Château-Neuf, a path down the Estoudeou Valley and the Estoubldisse Valley, crosses the neck of the Abes (of the Abesses on the IGN map) to join, by the upper Valley of the Baou, the Roman road to Chauvet.
As the donor, Lord Aldebert, after the death of Isarn in 1048, the venerable Abbot of Saint-Victor, he returned to his property by force. That earned him appear around 1090, before a plaid (House of justice) where the Knights of the territory (milites ibsius Earth): "William, Lord of Moustiers, with his wife Elene and his nephew Raimond, and Pons Arbert and Pons Madhavi, Taxil and Riculfe and Pons Roubaud and number of other canons". Jason Aldean and his sons Rostaing and Auphant are condemned to render their dispossession.
Taxil to the Chauvet "chastelas"Between the laugh and Moustiers installed on the right bank of Baou and Castellane downstream on the left bank, the field of Chauvet, upstream on the left bank, extends said ravine "Praoux" probably in the East, to the plateau of the westerly Tvbe, Mourre de Chanier North to the Baou to the South, i.e. clans the same limits of the hamlet of which, nowadays, is under the same name half of the commune of Châteauneuf. The family of the Taxil founded (or restored?) a parish church, St. Peter, and established a small castle, perhaps at the site of the mansion of a Carolingian villa.
But Chauvet has sufficient resources or a surface to form a seigneury comparable to those of its powerful neighbours, and its castle, the "Chastellas", is still dry-stone. That is why its owner, Guillaume Taxil, while having control over his domain and now ties with Castellane (it has a quarter of the decimated in the seigneury of Rougon, as in that of Saint-Jurs) remains or becomes one of the Knights, perhaps the first if this is the richest, the Entourage of Guillaume II de Moustiers.
Multiplication of the castles in Provence to 1030-1040Castellane, built on the left bank of the Baou, on the plain in the Tieye trendelenburg (986 m high), a parish church dedicated to Saint-Christophe. Then they built a castle, either on the truncated cone that overcome today sections of walls of a later Castle (XIV century), the ubac said top bar of Catalans (alt.1 333 m), which dominates in drop the Tieye to the South, steep, the small plain of Suech (alt.1200 m), to the North. And since the right bank of the Baou is now called Château-Neuf, and the oppidum of Bougon ("Fourras") (whose territory extended widely on the left bank of the torrent) is no longer in service, they safeguard this toponym attributing it to the new castle.
Other castles will still rise, witnesses from the disintegration of the central authority of its fragmentation into multiple places of power. While Provence had only a dozen in the first half of the 10th century, all built on its western part, and a few dozen around the year 1000 (which that of Castellane) there are more than a hundred circa 1030-1040, scattered throughout the territory. They have main function, nor the defense against a foreign enemy (the expulsion of the Saracens date already over fifty years) protection of the landlords and their loved ones against the ambitions of their neighbours. Should also not be exaggerating their military value: many simply consist of a tower pointing on a landscaped Rocky Ridge. Above all, they stand above the villa to dominate the land and farmers who live and produce their wealth. "And as the powerful is now the castle of his habitual residence, it attached the perception of new rights that it has absorbed and it extends or attempts to extend to everything that lives in the shadow of its roque;!'"
But often very narrow and rudimentary, sometimes constructed stone dry with roof boards, these feudal residences of the x 1' century give way soon to works more spacious and more livable. Ofcourse, Castellane first raise a new Castle, more extensive, more comfortable, on the edge of the rock platform, no doubt there where it located Joseph Laurensi in his history of Castellane. When, in turn, the other Lords of the region to strengthen in a more solid building, they destroyed the first to rebuild on the same site as in Castle of the Barris or Rounioules, either to prevent an enemy to use when they settle on a less steep access site: in Alpine, "Puy", the Castle will descend until near the chapelle Saint-Pierre; at Saint-Jurs, he abandoned the top of Huby, in Trigance, of Biach.
That remains todayThere in the Valley the Verdon as a single copy of the castles of the first generation: a Castellane erected it at Taloire, on the Ridge Saint-etienne (alt. 1179 m) overlooking the present village; and in 1095, Pons, former Bishop of Glandèves (a Castellane also) confirms the donation that he made to Saint-Victor "'.Reason for this exception: in the 11th century and later still, Castellane does build and modernize more castles than on the basis of the defence of the seat of their Barony that they dream independent; Taloire located away from strategic roads, there was therefore no reason to build a.
Our villages have originated these castles around which gathered willingly or by force, the rural population was "enchatellementee". The limits of their terroir remain unchanged most of the time, even when the periods of peace will allow to build on sites low, more favourable to economic activity. Against the power of the lordship, and against the feudal society that has invaded Provence space, successive counties will need more two centuries of address, fighting and energy to regain their lost sovereignty and make Provence a State. It is with this objective that they constantly support the efforts of emancipation of a church fell under the sway of the great aristocratic families.
Castellane are already challenging the authority of the count (1018)Although that composed of the companions of Guillaume le Libérateur and their descendants, the new aristocracy is not established without clinking of weapons or bloodshed. Unlike princes of Riez, Castellane, derived of the counts of Apt strayed from the central Government by the counts of Arles, say from the beginning, among the protesters of this power. The conflict over control of the castle of Fos is typical. This fortress commanded the entrance to the étang de Berre and its many saline. In 1018, the family to which she was entrusted (with that of Hyères), and took the name, refused to make it. Count William, son of Guillaume le Libérateur, began to recover it by force.
Two years later, the Viscounts of Marseille, old enemies of the Fos, actually recovered the Castle, but count William was killed in combat. During operations, the Castellane made diversion in if, by taking in a faithful of the count House, Esteve, Bishop of Apt, which had formerly worked at their headquarters.
Eleven years later, the young count Bertrand was forced to conduct a new punitive expedition against the Fos and leases. At the end of the intervention, it brings together its allies in the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille (August 1030). In addition to the new Archbishop of Arles, Raimbaud de Reillane, his brother Boso and the Bishop of Gap Féraud, are present lsnard, prince of Riez, his cousin Guigné Gaubert and the representatives of almost all major lineages of Haute-Provence, with the notable exception of Castellane and the D'agoult.
At the same time, Jason Aldean, Lord of Petra Castellana, his brother Rostaing, their brother Amiel, Bishop of Senez, and their nephews, whose Dodon, strain of coming Castellane, challenge at l'Abbaye Saint-Gervais, located near Fos, the parish church of the Plan de Castellane, Sainte-Marie, and its three appendices, the chapels: John the Baptist, St. Peter and St. Lawrence, as well as the terroir that depends on it. However it is precisely property that boasts Saint-Victor as former possessions. Confirming their commitment to the Fos, Castellane defy the County through its ally, the Marseilles Abbey. The donation is made under the reign of Rodolphe III, King of Burgundy and Provence.
On a smaller scale without doubt, conflict of interest must not miss into the ranks of a same lineage. In our region, why the aberrations of borders as the overflow of the Rougon territory on the left bank of the Verdon, at the expense of Trigance? And attachment to this Lordship itself, of a wide district Bagarry, which, despite its millennial annexation, still retains its original name nowadays?
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
- Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
- Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
- Consequences of the wars of religion
- Taxes, debt and economic ruin
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge