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Consequences of the wars of religion
Disorders begin to Castellane (1559)
In Provence, the wars of religion will last from 1559 to 1596. The first disorders have Castellane framework. In the small town, predominantly Catholic, a reformed Church comes to create. The brothers Antoine and Paul de Richieu, Lords of Mauvans, related to the Brown of Castellane and the Demandolx, appealed to a pastor of Geneva (1559). Their meetings are held in a House of Brun de Castellane, close to the parish church Saint-Victor, in which a zealous Friar father, preaching the lent. At the end of one of his particularly virulent sermons, the faithful are flocking to the assault on the House where protestants are assembled, throw stones in glass and threaten to fire. Protestants defend themselves, draw; There are victims. Catholics disperse, determined to return to the assault. From the evening, protestants fled the city, hatred in the heart. With their members that they were armed, the brothers Richieu practice retaliation at the outskirts, looting among other Augustinian convent.
The Governor of Provence, Claude de Savoie, County of Tende, himself married to a Protestant, is trying to appease the spirits. It offers to Antoine de Richieu Mauvans his mediation with the Parliament of Aix, who comes to declare against him for personal deferment. Mauvans agrees to defer to the decision of four gentlemen of the country: the Martin Velasquez and the Lords of scale, of Demandolx (Gaspard I de Demandolx, relative by marriage of Antoine) and Espinouse, which must meet flayosc, France. Mauvans goes there on its side. But when it passes in Draguignan, where a Protestant Assembly met to support it, Catholics assail it and put it in parts. His corpse is dragged in the streets, "was then salted", put in the barrel and shipped in Aix where, finally, hanging from a gallows, it is burned.
Paul Richieu - Mauvans swears to avenge his brother. He "was a man of great heart and great design and enterprise, as learned in business as in war, and well able to be party leader". Having recruited supporters, he tries to visit master of Aix and Pertuis, but fails (summer 1560). He attacked Draguignan, atone for inhabitants the murder of his brother, then returned to the mountains, trashing churches and multiplies the acts of violence to Castellane, Entrevaux, Colmars, Seyne, "at random, with atrocious cruelties".
Catholic farmers arm themselves in turn; Paul de Richieu hides at Saint-Andre; Governor Claude de Tende sends against him a few troops. Finally we negotiate: Richieu files weapons provided that the reformed worship is respected everywhere where, during his campaign, he established (early 1561).
The Parliament of Aix refuses peace of amboise (1564)
Catholics massacred the Demandolx Lord and burn her Castle (September 1564)
In February 1564, the King of France Charles IX who until 1563, will reign under the tutelage of his mother Catherine de Medici, prescribes various measures to try to appease the religious quarrels. The Parliament of Aix, acquired the Catholic party, refuses to enforce the edict. Ravishing, Charles IX returned, five months later, on the concessions to the protestants. Irritated, they rise and sacked the Cathedral of Orange. The attack infuriates Catholics Provencal. They wear their head Durand de Pontevès, Lord of Flassans and younger brother of the count of Carcès, Jean II de Pontevès, coseigneur of Châteauneuf-les-Moustiers, Blieux and the Clue. A few months later, Durand de Pontevès plundered the village of Tourves (Var), massacre the inhabitants, then withdrew behind the walls of Barjols. Governor Claude de Tende calls Paul de Richieu and his troops, who take Barjols of assault and slaughter are 600 defenders.
The war is unleashed. Catherine de Medici sends Sommerive to Aix with the title of lieutenant general and Commander of the province. Sommerive, son of Claude de Tende but a first bed, manifested with zeal his Catholic faith. While Durand de Pontevès, Chief of the Provençal Catholic troops, is placed under his orders, he left attacking Protestant places of Orange, it puts in fire and blood, and Sisteron, defended by Paul Richieu-Mauvans, whose it killing 400 men. Soon the heresy seems crushed in Provence. Also when the edict of Amboise granted the Protestants freedom of worship in a number of well-defined places, the Parliament of Aix once still refuses to apply the peace (March 1563). Charles IX must suspend it (April 1564).
A few weeks later, a group of Catholics besieged the castle of Demandolx. At the head of this fief, Gaspard succeeded his father Pierre. Lord Demandolx and Vatiplane (Demandolx arriere-fief), Gaspard married (1531) with Renée de Castellane, daughter of Boniface, Lord of Esparron, granddaughter by his mother of Palamède de Forbin, and sister of Mary, who had married 12 years earlier Antoine de Demandolx - La Palud. They have four children, including Gaspard II, which will inherit Demandolx and in 1562, married Anne de Grasse, daughter of Rolland de Grasse, Lord of Bormes and Mauvans. Like a few other nobles of the Haute-Provence, they are both of the reformed religion. They have taken part in campaigns of Paul de Richieu Mauvans, their parent?... Anyway, it takes much less to attract the hatred of fanatics. Also, before the Catholic band arrives at the Castle, have they caution to flee with their daughter Melchione. The attackers perceive them, set fire to the Castle and then launched their chase through rocks and pastures, catching up on the nearby mountain, the Cremont, and massacred them all three.
Report is drawn up (September 21, 1564) of the investigation conducted by the judge of Castellane and Commissioners members by lieutenant at the headquarters of Draguignan. The murderers are sentenced to death in absentia. Gaspard Il succeeded his father. He also is protestant. The Parliament of Aix Court takes a decision (8 February 1565), which places it, him, his family and servants, under the protection of the King and the comtal tribunal, warning the inhabitants of Demandolx that anyone would offend his person or his property, would be punished by a fine 10000 livres tournois and corporal punishment.
Gaspard II falls within the ruined walls. At the bottom of the testament he wrote less than eight years after the drama, (January 1572), he bequeathed the seigneurie de Demandolx to his son Samuel, provided that it continue to oversimplify the murderers of his father; legacy 1200 florins to another son, Jean, so he studied the Scriptures in Geneva; having two daughters on condition that they marry each a protestant. It designates as executors of his uncle, Claude de Villeneuve, Vence baron, and his cousin, Melchior de Castellane, Lord of Esparron. Its intolerance testifies to the spirit of the times. It will not also prevent his son and successor Samuel to convert to the Catholic religion, nor one of his daughters to marry (November 25, 1587), the Church Saint-Victor de Castellane. It is true that at this time, he will be dead, and his wife, Anne de Grasse.
Samuel, born around 1563, therefore will be young at the head of the seigneury. With the permission of his guardian and uncle breast, Pompey of Grasse, Lord of Bormes, Mauvans and Sartoux, it arrente the Castle and the land of Demandolx through 310 ECU 60 per year and for three years, Louis Carbonnel, under Sartoux coseigneur, Act passed at the Château de Mauvans, owned by Patrick de Grasse (1(i octobre 1589). He married Anthonie de Blacas, daughter of late Durand de Blacas, Lord of Carl, and Catherine de Lascaris, sister of the great maitre• of the order of Malta, Jean-Paul de Lascaris-Castellar. It will pay tribute on January 17, 1587.
Jean de Pontevès avoids a "Saint Barthélemy" Provence
On the night of 24 to 25 August 1572 (Saint-Barthélemy), 3,000 protestants are massacred, most in Paris, at the behest of Charles IX but at the instigation of Catherine de Medici and of Guise. If the Provence is spared similar horror, it owes less to the hesitations of the King to the wisdom demonstrated at that time Jean de Pontevès, Lord of Carcès, to Chateauneuf, best of the Clue, etc. The death of Claude de Tende (1566), his son, Sommerive, previously lieutenant-general, he was succeeded as Governor of Provence, and Jean de Pontevès had been appointed lieutenant-general. When the King ordered to massacre in turn Provencal protestants, Sommerive, prudent, request before acting ratification of the order, but receives a stop order. Then the order is confirmed. However, the Governor, sick, just succumb (2 October). Jean de Pontevès, which is, in fact, at the head of the Provence, refuses to obey: "I always served the King as a soldier, he replied, I'll be marry to this meeting the functions of executioner". Another version makes it say "what he did was not shield but gentleman". Fluctuating Charles IX shows also satisfied with his conduct, erected shortly after its Carcès lands in County, and appointed him High Steward.
However, in these times of confusion and crimes that are the wars of religion, horrified by the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Catholic Liberals, enemy of violence, are, in the County of Provence as throughout the Kingdom, the party of 'policies'. They want the restoration of order, and to this end, the agreement with protestants. Emboldened by this alliance, which follows for them years of isolation and bullying, the Provencal protestants attempt to improve their position.
Shots of hands of the protestants against Riez, Castellane etc (1574)
Behind Francis of prayer, Nicolas Mas de Castellane, baron of Germany, Louis de Ventimiglia, Lord of Montpezat, and other Lords whose one Estoublon, protestants are launching raids against Riez (July 1574), they take some time, and then against Digne, Seyne, Puimoisson, Majastres, Gréolières, Espinouse and Annot. On October 4, the enemy rebels of the King seized the town of Castellane but the inhabitants, who were released, allied with those of the neighbourhood, hunt them and pursue up to Taulanne, to the steps of St. Peter.
Twelve days later, a group commissioned by the baron of Germany left laugh attack Aups. Fearing this eventuality, the town well sought of Jean de Pontevès some companies for its protection, but the High Steward was unable to furnish. Protestants arrive early in the afternoon, break up within half an hour the resistance of the besieged, looted the houses, to burn six or seven, massacred about 30 inhabitants, wounding others, which benefit Jean Roux, priest of the Church, stop all those who fall them under the hand, among them Louis de Blacas, Lord of Vérignon and coseigmeur of Aups. At nightfall, they take up the road of Riez, dragging with them, to exchange them for ransom, a number of prisoners whose few, through darkness, manage to save themselves in the Woods.
Shortly after, around 1575, the Lord of La Palud, Antoine de Demandolx, died without issue. He asked to be buried before the high altar of the parish church of the village.
La Palud, Meyreste, Clumanc and Boriane he bequeathed to his nephew Jean II, son of his brother Louis. He leaves his wife, Blanche of Agout, probably in the first castle (and not in that it was built), the cattle, the cellar to enclose its wine. It will have the fruit and use of the garden, under the windows of the new castle of La Palud. She may choose two horses and a Mare among those who are in the stable, after however that Jean II, the heir, it will have chosen himself two, suggesting the presence, at this time, a large number of horses at the Castle. It will also have fruit and reactions of Meyreste half, meadows that are under this castle, and the "vine Madame".
The literary Court of Henri d ' Angoulême
One who has just been named the County Governor (1579), Henri of Angoulême, natural brother of King Henri III, has the title of Grand Prieur de France in the order of the hospital. He had arrived in Marseille two years earlier. During his stay in Provence, it will protect the artists. Poet himself, he brought with him, as Secretary, the young François Malherbe, who follows him to Aix.
Around the Grand prior and Malherbe, are artists, letters that enamored of French culture, as well as poets in Provençal language. The cenacle brings together inter alia the Grasse poet Louis Bellaud de Belaudiere, the painter and historian César de Nostredame, eldest son of the astrologer-physician Michel Nostradamus, François du Périer which the death of the daughter will inspire to Malherbe famous stanzas: "and Rose, she lived what live roses, the space of a morning."
To do here a place aside to another poet, Louis de Galaup-Chasteuil. From a saman family, his father, Antoine de Galaup, recently acquired (1574) the lordship of Chasteuil, which he shared with Puget and Davenport families. Author of several pieces of not devoid of merit to, Louis is also a historian, an antique dealer and an esteemed scientist. His talent asserts itself in particular in the drafting of inscriptions and epitaphs, such as those that it will inspire the thirtieth anniversary of the death of Nostradamus (1596).
He has two sons, including John, who succeeded him as coseigneur of Chasteuil. Poet also there for friends learned the shelter of Peiresc and the philosopher and mathematician Pierre Gassendi. The magistrate scholar will in particular stand out by drawing the acclaimed arches erected at the entrance to King Louis XIII Aix (1624
Peace is maintained for more than four years. Governor Henri d ' Angoulême pursues its policy of tolerance in relying on the majority of the population, that weary war and its ravages, and brings together all moderate Catholics anxious to maintain unity around the King, and of course the protestants. Only remain in a fierce opposition, intransigent Catholics who have the leader, until his death (1582), Jean de Pontevès, count of Carcès, Lord of Chtiteauneuf-Lesmoustiers, Blieux and the Clue.
When in 1581, as a result of the death of the Duke of Alençon, brother of Henri III, the young Henry of Navarre, a protestant, became heir apparent to the throne, these fanatical Catholics formed the League, in the image of that which the duc de Guise was founded in Paris (from 1576), in Provence and place led by Hubert de Vins, nephew of Carcès.
The League raises the war
As early as the spring of 1585, the League goes on the offensive. After hands shots missed on Puimoisson and Sisteron, she thinks to get master of Marseille, where a man, consul Louis de La Motte - Dariès, exercises for a few days a tyranny which obliges the bishop himself to flee. Finally, it fails, and the mound-Dariès is executed (April 1585). But in Paris, Henri III, low and unresolved nature, submits to the wishes of the duc de Guise, and to not lose his throne, himself took the head of the League. The protestants must make their places of safety. Those of Provence crowd around Nicolas Mas-Castellane, baron of Germany, who is hiding in Seyne and then appealed to the Duke of Lesdiguiere, his kinsman, who commanded a Protestant army in Dauphiné.
Failure against Castellane
January 30, 1586, the troops of the two Chiefs, with seven to eight hundred men, advance cautiously through the snow-covered mountains, with the aim to surprise Castellane. A poor woman who was collecting wood in the forest, sees them, short throw the alarm, and allows you to take the first steps of defense. Arriving to the city in the evening and finding weapons, protestants return the attack overnight. At dawn, their troops start moving. Supported by a company of arquebusiers, the "petardiers" attempt to blow up the door of the Annunciation. In vain. The arquebusiers opened fire on the ramparts. The inhabitants resisted with courage. Until women who retaliated with rifle muskets and stones. Captain Jean Mote, head of the "petardiers" wants to rekindle the ardour of his men. It is down to apply itself a craft, when a woman starts from the top of the rampart a full of blazing pitch cuvier, who crushes. The baron of Germany, who followed him, receives a bullet in the back, but his cuirass deflects the shot. Lesdiguiere blames to of Germany the mistake of believing the city defenceless and withdraws his troops. The seat is immediately lifted.
Victory in Germany
The confusion reached its peak in Provence when Henri d ' Angoulême was killed in Aix (June 1586) during an altercation with a member of Parliament, Renée de Rieux, his mistress's husband, and friend of Hubert de Vins. Three months more later (late August), he camped before the fortress of Germany's protestant leader. MAS-Castellane again requests the assistance of Lesdiguiere; both first concentrated their troops to prayer, and then turn on (September 4) to release the Castle. Many Leaguers captains agree to lift the siege to hide in Riez, which provides good means of defence and where wines has left a part of his forces: housed in a ground accident, clean to the evolutions of the infantry, the leaguer general believed she could indeed happen cavalry.
Lesdiguières and baron of Germany seek to surround it. To thwart the manoeuvre, Hubert de Vins wants to clean the road which should eventually ensure his retirement on laugh. But the Leaguers fail to contain the onslaught of EPS utestants, is débandent, throw weapons and run away. Then wanting to launch their pursuit at the head of his troops, the baron of Germany removes his helmet to be freer, when a ball strikes the forehead. He died an hour after, but the victory of protestants is complete: the League army fled to Riez, across fields.
Lesdiguières assists impassive to this rout. One of their own who invited him to run sus escapees, he would have answered that he used to go to war, no to hunting. Hubert de Vins lost before Germany twelve hundred killed or injured, as well as eighteen of his twenty-two flags.
Fighting around laugh and death of Henri III
After this failure, the Parliament of Aix withdrew to wines command of the troops that he entrusts to the Duke of Epernon, that Henri III has appointed new Governor of Provence. He led troops Gascon, safer, but that will quickly be hating everyone. It requires Leaguers and protestants to disarm. It removes even the latter Seyne square, which they held for twelve years, then actually hang the heads. It is peace, even once, the plague contributes (November 1586 - may 1587). The Duke of Épernon part for Paris, leaving his powers to his brother, Bernard de Nogaret de La Valletta, with the title of lieutenant-general.
The League always triumphs in Paris, and the Provencal Leaguers eventually hunt Valletta of Marseille (August 1588). Lieutenant general tried to regain the initiative. In October, he summoned the States in Pertuis. The Parliament of Aix response by bringing together in Marseille a "meeting of communities".
Provence has now two Governments: that of lieutenant general, that joined soon the royalist minority in Parliament, and who sits in Pertuis, then in Manosque. that of Aix, where the majority of the Parliament, gained the party of ultras Catholics, with Hubert de Vins became the military leader. The royalists held campaigns, League cities.
Immediately after the assassination of Henri III ("1 August 1589), Aix recognizes as King the cardinal of Bourbon, proclaimed by the Parisian League under the name of Charles X; Pertuis obviously recognizes Henri IV. Union of Provence and the France appears at that time threatened: while the King of Spain intrigue in Marseille, his son-in-law, Charles-Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy, responds to the call of one of Aachen's League leaders, the Countess of Sault. His Army crossed the Var, defeated the royalist troops at Riez (late 1590). Entrusted the Parliament of Aix powers military and administrative province, but he did not receive the count Crown it had hoped.
In the region, Jean Il de Demandolx, Lord of La Palud, developed its service. On commission of the Parliament (1590), he raised a company of one hundred men on foot, which part holds garrison in Boriane Tower, Clumanc arriere-fief, which belongs to him. Then on commission president Castellar of the Tower, it throws a company of pioneers to lead and lumber artillery.
Response of Henri IV
Parliament shall convene States to Aix, while, on the orders of Henri IV, the royalist States gather at Riez (end January 1591). Charles-Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy, then decided to occupy militarily the Haute-Provence. He entrusts to Jean II de Demandolx - La Palud command of Draguignan. Valletta and Lesdiguières, troops supporting Henri IV, are concentrated around Riez, fighting the Leaguers, including Esparron and Vinon (December 1591), and forced Charles Emmanuel to return to its States (March 30, 1592).
Meanwhile, Valletta himself was killed in an engagement (February 11, 1592). To replace it, the League means the count of Carcès, son of Hubert de Vins, while Henri IV again sends the duc d ' Épernon. It, wanting to make an example, seizes Montauroux (Var), which made hanging the defenders. Its brutality soon alienated the minds.
Finally Henri IV who abjured Protestantism, the Parliament of Aix, after having remade its unit, recognizes it as King of France and count of Provence (January 1594). To force the duc d ' Épernon to submit to Henri IV that has disowned it members of the nobility, including Jean II de Demandolx - La Palud, congregate on the invitation of the County Carcès, former Chief leaguer, and François of prayer, former Chief protestant and Commander of the royalist troops. In February 1596, the sword of Pierre de Libertat RID Marseille of the dictatorship of the leaguer leader Charles de Casaulx who relbsant to join Henri IV, attempted to deliver the city to the King of Spain.
The King appoints his Guillaume du Vair faithful to the Presidency of the Parliament; for twenty years, du Vair will work to repair ruins have amassed forty years of fratricidal struggles, and people will see the benefits of peace.
The impoverishment of the region at the time of Richelieu and Mazarin
The erosion of revenues for the communities and the nobility
By the end of the 16th and early 18th century, Provence recorded a steady rise in the cost of life, as evidenced by the rise in the price of wheat from countries in Aix.
Everywhere where the land retains its rich productive qualities, the devaluation of the currency will have no effect on the income of owners of the soil: land prices is itself an upgrading upper, so that with the price of a hectare, an owner may purchase in 1718-1726 twice as much wheat as in 1602 - 1615. Thus, the Basse-Provence knows, in the 17th century, a population and economic growth reflected the enrichment, notaries, but also artisans, Millers, bakers, butchers and Mule; Toulon passes 10,000 in 1598, 18,000 in 1635, Marseille of 50,000 at the beginning of the century to 65,000 in 1666. Seeded multiply, breeding is progressing, the active population increases; agricultural wage-earners themselves benefit from this boom because they more easily find employment. This situation lasted until 1690.
Conversely, in a part of the Haute-Provence, the phenomenon will cause the erosion of both the nobility and community income, and this depletion will continue to worsen until the Revolution.
Before the price increase, the Lords of the region at the head of their Lordships, will react according to their temperament. By short-sightedness and intellectual laziness, each will continue to lead an idle life in their castles, or in the most pleasant of Aix and Marseille. To obtain the extra money required by the rise of the cost of living, they will confine themselves to demand with more harshness the fees that pay them their farmers, and restore old fallen into disuse. Others, on the contrary, that have a certain understanding of economic laws, seek to increase their resources through the increase in production. Custom prohibits them, under penalty of disqualification, the most lucrative business: trade and industry. She permits them, as gainful work, development of their areas and the practice of rare professions, such glassware.
In the army and administration
Not to mention the offices in the army or administration: by constant encroachments, representatives of the King of France gradually remove them loads that were hitherto reserved clans justice, the police and other institutions, and now sell them to the highest bidders, that is often to the bourgeois, wealthier, so fall of new ECU clans the royal budget. Also are the noble assets mainly to stimulate the development of crops and livestock on their land. Including the ease of communities is the most sure guarantee of their most imaginative apply to facilitate the work and the existence of peasants. But here are two factors specific to the region: the defect in excessive climate, which entails that yields, and the extreme fragility of the soil that destroyed the expansion of crops and herds. These two factors often compromise efforts and cause, ultimately, the devaluation of the earth itself.
Consequences, plague and military operations if mixing, most of the Lords - the idle first, assets then - must sell part of their Lordships to survive, while communities, constantly on the edge of hunger, still more additional to relieve the most hapless of the inhabitants. In such difficult conditions, relations between Lords and communities may generally that is sour.
George II of Demandolx
Jean II de Demandolx - La Palud, who took arms for the League then joined with Henri IV after his abjuration, inherited his uncle Antoine, died childless, the seigneuries of La Palud, Meyreste and Boriane, for which he did homage in 1596. Meanwhile, her father, Louis de Demandolx, former captain of Galerius and lieutenant of Jean de Pontevès, had followed the Court of the King of Navarre, himself father of the future Henri IV. His brother Antoine, born in 1561, founded the branch of the Demandolx de Marseille and will daughter Madelaine, compromised in a case of witchcraft.
With the permission of his uncle Antoine, who had already established him his heir, Jean II married (June 7, 1573) Villeneuve splash, daughter of Jean de Villeneuve, Vence baron, Lord of Thorene, le Castellet and le Canadel. He has five children, including Elzéar, born May 30, 1585, who will succeed him at the head of the seigneuries. In his will to the castle of La Palud, he asked to be buried "in the Church of the Palu, the tomb of predecessors".
John II died (August 16, 1616) at the age of 63 years. His son, Elzéar, succeeded him as Lord of La Palud, Meyreste, Clumanc, and the (commune de Clumanc) Traille. In 1607, he married Marquise de Villeneuve, daughter of Christophe de Villeneuve, baron of Vauclausse (municipality of go) and Françoise de Grasse. The marriage contract was signed at the Château de Bargemont, belonging to Christophe de Villeneuve. His fourteen children, only seven reached adulthood, including:
- Lucretia, born 1 June 1610, which sponsor Antoine de Boulogne; She married at the age of 18 years honored with Raymond, son of Claude de Raymond, Lord of Eoulx;
- Julien, born 6 October 1614, who will succeed his father at the head of La Palud and Meyreste;
- Gaspard, born 12 January 1622, who never married and died at the age of 80. His mortuary extract, signed by the second Vicar, will specify: "his body was buried at the bottom of the chapel of the Lord of La Palud".
Elzéar de Demandolx
Elzéar was a scholar; He wrote a book of reason where he keeps the history of its predecessors, maintained a correspondence followed with letters and scholars. He is responsible for its properties, improves its lands, increases the garden of the Castle, already important and a good report. To meet the expenses of his large family and give his daughters, it is forced to sell the seigneurie de Clumanc brother-in-law Périer, Adviser to the Parliament, as well as the ferry.
He made his testament in the following year and asks to be buried in the Church of La Palud, "to the tomb of his predecessors, to the bench of his children; "If the chapel founded by fire Messire jean de Demandolx, honoured his father, is not completed, charge his heir to implement State in order to place the body of the testator and any other of his predecessors". His wife Marchioness, he bequeathed his room and the office of top, the kitchen of the castle of La Palud and the top room with wardrobe. It will also have the usufruct of the garenne and the garden below them say rooms, can use pleases of the oven the Castle Cook, and le pigeonnier Tower. It will have, in addition, enjoyment "of the vineyard of Meyreste, with the room of the castle to recreate when she wishes, with permission to cattle in the stables and take what will please him in la fenière feed said livestock". This testament is made in the presence of notary Antoine Audouardi, and Georges Rebory, the latter - remarkably - notary to La Palud even. Elzéar de Demandolx died before 1642.
Melchior and François de Demandolx
Eldest son of Ican de Demandolx-Trigance and Brigitte-Claudine de Lascaris, Melchior de Demandolx succeeded his father at the head of Trigance and Estelle. He married January 1581) Diane de Villeneuve, daughter of Gaspard de Villeneuve, Lords of the arches. He had six children including:
Francis who as heir apparent, took the title of Lord of Estelle; young (1607) married with Anne de Simiane la Coste.
Arnaud, called "cadet de Trigance"; Gabrielle, born in September 1589, who married Charles de Villeneuve - Beauregard, Lord of La Napoule, and whose son, Barthélemy de Villeneuve, married Catherine de Demandolx, daughter of Elzéar de Demandolx - La Palud;
Françoise, who married Marc-Antoine de Sabran, one of the three sons of Claude de Sabran, Lord of Aiguines.
If it does not seem that Melchior took an active part in the wars of religion, the community has nevertheless suffered disorders. In 1595, she is overwhelmed by contributions of war and the Council has been forced to take the wheat to credit of the prior to pay the contribution required without delay by the Governor of Grasse.
During his lifetime, Melchior appears to have maintained an excellent relationship with his subjects.
The Community shall elect each year his Council, which makes many decisions on trade, cattle, timber and crops. Composed of three consuls, two auditors of the accounts and three estimators, the Council, in 1586, had established an office of health in which, alongside the three consuls, sat the Lord.
This last is also evidence of initiative in the field of industry: probably on his advice, his son François, after having built a new castle at Estelle, establishes close (April 15, 1621) a glass in buildings constructed for this purpose, which he entrusts the market to the two brothers Jean-Jacques and Honoré Perrot. It will work for nearly fifty years. They arrenteront the "canopy" of Estelle until 1646. Other master-glassmakers their successors. One of them married his second wife Marguerite de Demandolx.
Trigance protects plague (1628-30)
Self-government by the States assembled at Aix, and solemnly sworn by Charles VIII, was somewhat unknown by François however, subsists in part when Richelieu under Louis XIII, undertakes a whole centralizing policy: he wants to destroy the provincial powers to not leave that the will of the King.
The upheaval of the wars of religion, the princely quarrels that have shaken the Kingdom of 1611 in 1621, did lose the habit to obey the country imposed by Francis I. A terrible epidemic of plague, which descends once again on the Provence from 1628 and forced, the following year, the Parliament of Aix to seek refuge at Salon, just increase the disorder.
As soon as appeared the risk of contagion, the community of Trigance took its provisions: closure of all entrances to the village "out of the way of Saint-Roch, du Moulin at the fountain"; institution of paid bodyguards four cents a day, "to give and receive the bilhettes of allans and venans". Then, to ensure the permanent monitoring, and to prohibit entry to foreigners, the Council voted a special tax. The responsibility of these guards comes in turn to designated delegates amongst "the most aparans": Lord François de Demandolx, three consuls, the cure, etc. In 1629, the community redoubled his vigilance: a servant stands still guard unique door which gives access to the village, and only holders of "bilhetes" can enter or exit. A troop of harvesters from Lorgnes, suspect instead of contagion, is authorized to enter Trigance only after special envoys have reported the reassuring information Draguignan. Disgruntled to have waited, the reapers revile the consuls, causing large "insolence". The Council decided to continue if they consent to retract and to pay all costs.
As the weeks pass, the plague extends its ravages through Provence. The community still takes more stringent measures: Organization of an office of health, that make up four notables, to assist the consuls; those who have "small unnecessary dogs will make die, street cleaning, etc.
Before hunger looming, it was decided to "pick up" the most possible wheat and send eight mules to Fréjus to bring back the salt needed for herds.
Finally, whereas only the safest "way to ensure such diseases, after having begged the mercy of God, it's cut the path to any attendance", the villagers receive notice "of this ready to abandon the place and withdraw each of their country houses or huts". those who would point, will there build where they want on the territory of Trigance and Estelle. At the same time, the Council appoints zealous, and helpful people that pourvoiront to the needs of those who are thus ration in the nearby countryside, taking an exact account of advances to later require reimbursement.
Nevertheless, the epidemic spreads. The Council then decides the erection of a new chapel dedicated to Saint-Roch emergency because, in the opinion of doctors, most remedies are ineffective.As it does never take too many precautions, the Council also asked François de Demandolx to instruct the master glass artists of Estelle will receive "to buy glasses" that people with good "counting".
The war in Spain and the contribution of the villages
Finally the scourge saves Trigance and La Palud. But upsets Digne, where it would have deleted four months more than eight urbanites out of ten, the city falling from 10 000 to 1500 souls. In Riez, it carries a portion of the population, but stops when the Parliament allows the survivors to disperse across the neighbouring countryside. A Castellane, it reaps in 1630 many of the inhabitants; in 1631, an order of health prohibits "any inhabitant of the bastides of the terroir to leave without counting, and return without counting of the places where they will have passed, to see the guard to door of said city, otherwise be quarantined" '. The plague begins Digne in 1631. Then sorry Manosque and, the following year, Valensole. Fortunately, the dispersal of the clans the surrounding population is limited the damage.
At the same time as the plague, a serious crisis of subsistence overwhelms the Provence. The 1627 harvest is so deficit the following year, he has more wheat in Trigance for seed and the vicar advance the money to the consuls to buy, to Castellane or elsewhere. But the hard crisis: the end of 1621), Trigance Council estimated that 150 (240 hl) loads of wheat would fail to reach the next harvest. He therefore concluded a contract with François de Demandolx, who promised the quantity of wheat needed at a price of 21 guilders the load; Yet, in the spring of 1630, the Lord arrives to collect only 100 loads. For its part, the Council is that 10 others at Antoine Antenne, all deliverable immediately and payable to the Saint-Michel. To fill the gap, the consuls must search among certain privileged individuals, and seize hidden wheat. They pay for it cash using the available funds of the brotherhoods.
The year after, slight improvement. The Lord, and the priest have however to provide 80-20 loads of wheat, and the Council must ask to François de Demandolx "to yawn again" 20 additional burdens. In 1635, new crop deficit. The community borrows from the Lord 50 loads (80 hl) of wheat, which are allocated by families "in proportion to the people". The Council also asked the Bishop of Riez, whereas "the misery of the time", that the 21 books that he has put forward "for este employed in the invoice of the sacristy", be reimbursed and not not data to the preacher for lent.
Requirements of the war
Another cause of difficulty: the exigencies of war. The fight that Richelieu leads against the House of Austria in Piedmont and Lombardy, leads in Provence of the requisitions of food and Mule transport. In 1629, while they wear in their village, the inhabitants of Trigance received the order routing to Fréjus, for the service of the King, "a couble (a couple) of mules and muleteers capable". They have required accordingly, against payment, Jean Rouvier mules, as well as a driver, said Rouvier himself could not lead his animals due to its great age. But they are so little "most capable" of the place, that the services of Draguignan refuse. Before irritation of the population, it is necessary to send the younger brother of the Lord of Trigance, Demanclolx, and the parish priest of the village, with "Gentlemen les Verriers" of Estelle urging them to sell "a per of mules and we accommodate mullatierm".
Launching the France in the third phase of the thirty years war, Richelieu declares war on Spain in 1635. From September onwards, the Spanish seize the Lérins Islands, but fail to gain a foothold on the continent. The Marshal of Vitry, Governor of la. Provence, strengthens the Cannes coast and preparing the counter-offensive. Each village was ordered to provide him with men. At Trigance, the Council appoints five young people who leave immediately, "wearing a pale, a company and an isadon".
After the death of Richelieu, Mazarin resumed hostilities against the Spaniards in Italy, and brings together a fleet at Toulon. Operations cause once again movements of troops and military charges. The community of Trigance, in 1646, must stay for eighteen days a company of Cavalry of the Régiment de Créqui. Forced to pay 57.5 cents a day "on the foot of 30 seats" to each of the cavaliers, despite "the great need and poverty" inhabitants and the scarcity of forage to fetch away "at great cost and fresh", the Council must borrow. expenditure amounts indeed to 893 pounds, that will pay the Treasurer of the community, not including the 1020 books of contributions that provide for their part the villages of Rougon and La Palud.
Eleven years more bacon, Trigance Council shall contract a new loan with Honorade d'Albert, Lady of Rougon, in order to meet expenditure of three companies of the regiment of Guiri, and another with his son, Pierre Brun de Castellane, Lord of Rougon and son-in-law of François de Demandolx-Trigance, to pay for the accommodation of two companies of the regiment of Navarre ".
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
- Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
- Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
- Taxes, debt and economic ruin
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge