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Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
Squandering the comtal field, Queen Jeanne sells Avignon with the Pope and many seigneuries at the Roger
With the death of Robert, count of Provence and King of Naples, Crown passed to her small daughter Jeanne Ire, 17 years. The reign, that will last forty years 1343-1382 will be constantly troubled by the machinations that engourdiront the brothers of King Robert: the Hungary, the Taranto and Duras, but also by the ambition of the Duke Louis of Anjou, who governs the Languedoc on behalf of his brother, the King of France Charles V. Comtesse de Provence and Queen of Napleswith the purely honorific of Queen of Jerusalem tracks (Muslims have taken Jean-of Acre in 1291, and of Sicily fell in the hands of the Aragonese in 1282, Jeanne Ire, the famous Queen Jeanne of legend, will his tragic life, torn, drama and rivalries, in his Kingdom of Naples, with the exception of a seven month stay in Provence in 1348the year where she sells to Clement VI the city of Avignon. Driven from Rome by the riots, the papacy had already acquired, in 1274, the Comtat Venaissin and is was actually installed since 1309. the city will complete the pontifical State.
In 1345, Pope Clement VI, the Roger family, thanked the young Jeanne of the "donation" of castra Mées and lauzet she came to consent has his brother Guillaume II Roger. The agreement started in sales agreed by the Queen who has ever need money, development accelerated in the Provence, limousin, once modest lineage, with Roger: will see t on a day the powerful Guillaume III Roger, nephew of the current Pope and brother of the next Pope Grégoire XI, married to Eleonore de Comminges, of the sovereign of the counts of Comminges and Foix House, owner of the County of Beaufort in Anjou and the Viscount of Turenne in Limousin, hold in Provence de Valernes (Bailiwick of Sisteron), the castle of Baux, the towns of Saint-Rémy and Pertuis, the castles of Bayons, by Reynier, of Bellafaire of La Motte, Cairo, Gigors of Lauzet of Entrevennes, guys of Mezel, du Castellet of MeyrarguesSéderon, Penne and other places.
Meanwhile, Raymond D'agoult, Lord falls and many fiefs of Haute Provence, who became appointed Seneschal by the Queen, administers the County. He will relinquish his charge (1353) to pass it on to his son Foulques D'agoult. The Lords of Provence pay tribute to their distant Queen, although they do at home what they want, often meeting in Aix States, and become accustomed to legislate. Finance and tax in particular under their jurisdiction. Voting subsidies claimed by the sovereign, the representatives of the countries broaden their role, have the opportunity to hear the views of their constituents and are calling on their behalf of reforms. Provence virtually found independence from the administration of the Kingdom of Naples.
Archpriest road sweep on Provence (1357)
Robert de Duras ensures troops of "road" or "large companies" contest; available since the truce that followed the defeat of Jean-le-Bon in Poitiers, they unfurl on the left bank of the Rhône, commissioned by fearsome heads of bands, which Arnaud of Cervole told "Archpriest". They seized the castle of Baux and ravage the countryside. In Aix, States recruit mercenaries and to combat these gangs, rely on others to the command of the count of Armagnac; to get rid of, it will pay ransom to one and other.
Riez, Castellane and Moustiers build their walls
Everywhere the uncertainties of time lead the Provençal towns to raise their walls. The village of Castellane also receives its fortifications (1359). Of the Pentagonale tower with machicolation, the line of the ramparts, which com-door Fourteen towers joined East door of the Annunciation and then, by the place of the Grave (so named because of the gravel is deposited flood of Verdon; dates back to the West by the clock tower.) This Chamber encircled an area about 900 not, says Laurensi. Despite its six centuries and a half, it is still, today, clearly visible on both sides: first the front of houses facing the main square with its three towers of square section: one, in the Middle, recessed partly in the ancient sub-prefecture, the other two, at angles, especially one that also overlooks the square of the current parish church, with his Ravens that would support breteches or machicolations. Then, the row of houses bordering this last place and in which fits the gate called of Petardiers Maseau at the time of Laurensi, or de L'annonciade, caught between two rectangular blocks, probably towers converted into homes.
In Draguignan, the third State sign a treaty, 24 January 1361, with Henry, Earl of ruse, leader of a gang of "road" called "Spaniards", so he evacuates ransom laugh, which he burned the lower town, without being able to take the upper town, protected by its position. Following this rampage, the city built an enclosure which remain part of the rampart and two beautiful doors. At Moustiers, beginning of the construction of new ramparts; to undertake its fortification, the city had achieved as early as 1342 authorisation to lift a special tax, and, since then, spent in many deliberations (1343, 1357, 1359); the work will last until 1365.
Commanded by Du Guesclin and other chiefs of bands, new troops of road ravage in turn the left bank of the Rhône, but this time at the instigation of Louis of Anjou, who begins to give shape to its designs on the Provence. Meanwhile, in Naples, the Government of Queen Jeanne seeks to reduce the powers of the Seneschal of Provence, multiplies the offices, squandering the comtal field.
The "Great Schism" (1378-1429): the Queen Jeanne opts for the Avignon Pope
In Avignon, advent on the papal throne in January 1371, Grégoire XI. the new Pope is none other than the brother of Guillaume III Roger, himself father of Raymond de Turenne in that it leaves the effective possession of the Viscount of Turenne and who, the following year, will join, to the head of a troupe, the County Amédé VI of Savoy, main ally of Grégoire XI in Piedmont, to defend the statements of the Pope threatened by mercenaries of the Visconti.
The "Great Schism" begins in 1378 when, at the death of Grégoire XI, returned to Rome for a few months, Italian Cardinals elected Urban VI, which remains in Rome, while the french Cardinals elected Clement VII, who moved to Avignon. It lasted until 1429. During these fifty years, there will be two and sometimes three Popes at once. The Council of Constance (1414) and then the election of Martin V (1417) will provide a final solution. For a century, Avignon has been "little Rome", with Italian as the official language. Avignon will belong to the church until 1791, and then the city and Comtat Venaissin will meet the France... Born to a family of high nobility, unlike his two predecessors from the Roger family, Clement VII's brother the count of Geneva, which exercises undisputed sovereignty over an area ranging from the Savoie Lake Geneva, and is petit-cousin by his mother of the King of France. His pontificate lasted until 1429. Queen Jeanne commits the imprudence to opt for him. As soon as the Pope of Rome brings together and encourages against her many enemies it has in Italy.
Through the Avignon Pope, the Queen enlists the help of Duke Louis of Anjou, on condition that it adopt him as a son at the expense of his cousin and natural heir, Charles of Duras (1380). One year after it receives the Pope of Rome the investiture of the Kingdom of Naples, which he captured and, having captured the Queen, makes strangulation when he learns the arrival of the army of Louis of Anjou to the issue (1382). Immediately, Provence is divided and knows the calamities of the civil war. Communities, Marseille and the Seneschal Foulques D'agoult took adopted the defunct Queen, Louis of Anjou's son, while Aix and the majority of the Lords are opting for his natural successor, his cousin Charles of Duras. Each fight and is besieged. Robbers take advantage of these military operations to spread in rural areas. Everywhere prevail confusion in people's minds, the disorder in the business.
Civil war: Jean de la Palud died defending Moustiers (1383)
Cannot believe the death of Jeanne (to which it had lent tribute in 1351 and in 1369), Moustiers community refuses both Louis and Charles, and will pay it expensive: it first undergoes destruction of supporters of Duras (1382), ordered by the Lord of Aiguines, Albert Blacas. the attackers demolish half the village of Paillerols, on the left bank of the stream that runs through the city, to build a fort overlooking it. but locals resist in the western part, des Baumettes, and Blacas eventually lift the siege after a few months. One year later (November 1383), these are the supporters of Louis I of Anjou, under the orders of Louis of Trian, Viscount de Talard and Lord of Gréoux and brother-in-law Guillaume de Glandèves, attacking Moustiers. Defenders, against the will of their Captain Jean, Lord of La Palud, which will find death, try a trip during which they take or kill; the attackers abduct the city, the plunder, rape some women, massacred a few bourgeois and require a ransom of 5000 gold florins. Finally, on the express condition that Queen Jeanne is well dead, Moustiers ready tribute (at the same time) to Louis I of Anjou, but his widow, Marie de Blois (1385), while one of his Lords, Guillaume de Pontis, renew the Act two years later.
Become count of Provence and King of Naples in 1382 among the greatest difficulties, Louis I had only a very short reign, since he died September 20, 1384, in Barri. A few months later, States gather at Apt to get his widow, Marie de Blois, confirmation of liberties of the country, and recognize as his son Louis Il, count of eight years.
Marie de Blois Regent
Immediately showing an energetic and skillful Regent, Marie de Blois search patiently the submission of the bishops, the barons and cities, does not hesitate to negotiate the rallies, entrusted this mission to great lords such as the Seneschal Foulques D'agoult and Guigonnet de Jarente. Among the feudal lords who shall give tribute this year, guard, Lord of Rougon Guyard. It grants the Lord of Eoulx property of the inhabitants of the place remained in the opposing camp.
After receiving in 1378 Queen Jeanne a part of the fief of Seyne, Guigonnet de Jarente, Lord of Gémenos (current commune of the Bouches du Rhône), of Selonnet (current commune of the canton of Seyne), will be sell the seigneurie de Montclar (current commune of the canton of Seyne), which had belonged to the previous century, in one of his ancestors, Lantelme de Jarente. He has loads of master of accounts and advise the King. One of his grandsons became Lord of La Palud.
The Queen Mother was able to neutralize the action of the new Governor of Languedoc, the duc de Berry, brother of her deceased husband, who tried to turn to extend its influence in Provence. She travels across the country, expands local privilege, is cheering the young King Louis II... At the perilous time where they will be faced with a new policy, Crown, the Roger lost both the protection of the sovereign power with the demise of Queen Jeanne, and power pontifical with the installation of the Genevois in Avignon, the centre which catered to their prestige and their legitimacy. Yet Marie de Blois confirms them January 15, 1386, all donations they had enjoyed in Provence. Apparently convinced of his sincerity, Raymond de Turenne gives tribute four days later to leases.
While the assassination of Charles of Duras in Hungary ends to undermine the party which, in Aix, supported yet its cause, the Queen left Arles, where she stayed for a month and comes in small steps to Castellane, whose community pays him tribute (15 February 1386), then at Moustiers which makes allegiance (April 17), and continues by Draguignan. On 23 May, she confirmed the privileges of "said city of Castellane, rock and fortress it, with his district, terroir, men, jurisdictions, honors and privileges whatsoever".
The submission of Blieux and the Bailiwick of Colmars (1388)
The situation of the Roger starts to degrade: the sovereign has installed one of its captain, Aureille, the Alpilles village which belongs to the castle of leases; Raymond de Turenne takes over force (March 10, 1336). In August, she retaliates by confirming to the community of Saint-Rémy its earlier privileges, with promise of the return in the count field. On 3 September, during a clash, Turenne crushes a pontifical detachment and seized 20 prisoners. His troops proved insufficient to fight his opponent, Marie de Blois is issued, on 15 December, a safe-conduct so come discuss at Avignon, where he arrived five days after, escorted by 40 men of arms and 100 horses. The one and the other came to an agreement in witness whereof he renewed his oath of homage, in the presence of his father, William III Roger and three D'agoult: Raymond II, Chamberlain to the Queen, Lord of Sault and Viscount of Reillane, his cousin Raymond, Lord of the Val of L'oulle, and Reforciat, Commander of the Hospital of Aix and Puimoisson. Owners of ancestral domains, the D'agoult received them also of Queen Jeanne of significant "donations" which were recorded, in the years 1360, by count officers identifying rights and Lordships alienated. Guillaume III Roger and Raymond II D'agoult conclude in June 1387 a Treaty of alliance clans the explicit aim to mark principle hostility of angevin power which, instead, they took the party from its origin, but to resist threats on this land area which provides substantial income. As well as missing recalled Guillaume III, Queen Jeanne gave them land and places "not to title free and simple liberality, but as expensive for reward for services rendered, and for the restitution of large expenditures for it in its most urgent business of the Kingdom of Naples".
In a few weeks, Marie de Blois will find a way to resolve several outstanding disputes with the D'agoult; February 1, 1388, it gives the castrum of Barjols D'agoult Raymond; as a result, you hear more talk of the Covenant D'agoult-Roger. In Haute-Provence where there are still a few outbreaks of resistance, she promises amnesty and privileges, if they submit, to the community of Blieux and the Bailiwick of Colmars. Thanks to its skilful and persistent policy, it gets in two years the recognition of Louis Il by Provence, thus ensuring the final installation of the second House of Anjou. It will, however, make a serious territorial amputation: the viguerie of Nice, Puget-théniers and Barcelonnette Bailiwick will give the count of Savoy by a Treaty (1388) which will separate for almost five centuries from the rest of Provence.
After the peace, the return of the war
It is at the point where civil peace seems revenue that will begin "the most horrible war that centuries have never seen in Provence". Queen Jeanne literally squandered the comtal field. In 1370, it sold the rights to la Voulte Bermond and income that has the Court de Castellane on the city and the Bailiwick. Result: nine years later, when the rationales Véran Esclapon and Hugues Bernard established complete list of jurisdictions, Bailiwicks and dioceses, the Bailiwick of Castellane is not.
Count King Louis II revoked this alienation and, at the same time, all others with the exception of the sale of Avignon to the Pope. But this unilateral decision which, despite earlier promises, in particular strikes family Roger, including Raimond de Turenne, will cause a second intestine, waged war against the Pope at least as much as against the rulers.
The Georges de Marte Seneschal opens hostilities with the seat in front of the Château de Meyrargues, that is the mother of Raymond de Turenne, Eleonore de Comminges, the only one of the Roger to persist in its opposition to the Angevins, and before Les Pennes, possession of her husband Guillaume III. Beginning June 1388, the castrum of the pinnae is swept away and shaved, Meyrargues falls a few days later. These acts justify the fears of the Roger, and cut the relations between them and the angevin power.
At the beginning of the year 1390, citing the imminent signing of an agreement, Clement VII invites Raymond de Turenne to visit the castle of Suze, not far from Avignon, in the Kingdom of France. It is in fact an ambush, but the killers arrive an hour or two after the departure of the designated victim... Grievances have steadily accumulate between the Pope and the vicomte de Turenne, who begins to write memoirs encrypting private property, objects of value and jewels of his uncle Grégoire XI, part of which should return it to the family heritage, as well as loans to the Church by his family, it assesses the extraordinary 1150 ducats sum18 780 guilders and 45 337 francs. The current Pope challenging even more vigorously the reality that the Schism caused a significant reduction in its revenues. Nevertheless, the year will be intense in negotiations, without the war stops or embrase elsewhere.
Located in the boundaries of the Dauphinee and crossed by the road that leads in Piedmont, the Bailiwick of Sisteron suffers from the passage of the companies of mercenaries. Of those, among others, which will in Italy, under the command of John III of Armagnac, fight the Visconti troops. In June, thanks to the complicity of one of its co-seigneurs, the castrum of Cairo falls into the hands of the grandfather of Raymond de Turenne bastard son, Tristan de Beaufort which, after three months of discussions, evacuated his mercenaries for 1,000 florins. Shortly thereafter, remnants of the army of Jean 111 of Armagnac, killed in an ambush, returning to Italy. Controlled Chemisard, these road settled in November in the country. Further to the Southwest, from the Comtat Venaissin and Valentinois where fighting subsided, other companies, who had relieved of the authority of the vicomte de Turenne, arrive in the viguerie of Forcalquier, remove Banon. Despite the capture of Chemisard, his mercenaries decide from that in April 1392, with 1 000 francs, while those of Turenne not lapsing Banon that a little more tard18. Further to the East, perhaps two or three years earlier, other companies have worked in violence in the Middle Verdon region.
The powerful "rock and fortress of Castellane"
The words of Marie de Blois, confirming the privileges of Castellane May 23, 1386, attest that Castle Rock still owned by the County, which organized it, weapon, and who pays the balances: "want finally those who will be members and ordained by the Royal Court, to keep the rock and fortress of said city, to be the same city and that they ayent wages payable accoustumes constantly of tax money and other droicts of the Royal Court of" Castellane"... Fighting in 1262, had resulted in the surrender of the city and the Castle, had not told make large deletions; Sixteen years after the siege, the Barcelona administration investigated each of the communities of the Bailiwick (1278), among others on the State of the fortifications; Castellane, witnesses interviewed said that the enclosure of the castrum required no repairs; only the village could have required, be rehabilitated, receive ramparts and his defense be strengthened, what was done, we have seen, a century after.
As for the Castle, it isn't question in the survey. Probably because it was already the territorial military organization subordinate to the Seneschal, organization which "essentially consisted of castles guarded, placed under the command of bailiffs or Lords (bailiffs when commanders exercised an administrative authority and judi-ciary country around;)" Lords of the Manor, in principle, when their authority is limited to the walls of the fortress and its immediate surroundings). Each of these castles was attached a small garrison, maintained and appointed through count revenues from the exchanges. As early as 1327, chatelain Akram of Pompone was tasked to identify the content of the fortress; Similarly Hugues de Levens, in 1333, listed crossbows, bows, gauntlets and bassinets that were there.
Rock Castle was renovated or rebuilt to clam century by the counts of Provence, and transformed into a powerful stronghold. A wall, crenellated and which, still standing on the eastern slope of the mountain, down to the ravine of lock, housed the Roc on its side is; the agglomeration of the mir century, behind a long wall, protected as it on its northern flank, to which it clings. According to a count administration document dated 1390, four walls defended the uppermost platform, and Squire who held the fortress for the County, 1426-31 Jean Lermini, lived in a House that adjoined a square Tower commonly known as "the Tower of the Coladissa door".
Beaudricourt Jean, Governor of Provence, is dismantling the fortress, which was razed and demolished in 1483.
The road to Castellane
Gold outside the wall covering the flank is as in the middle of the city protected by its ramparts, two or three dozen of stone cannonballs still at present of a siege that has undergone the fortress. And document from 1390 to which we refer, presents this rampart as already "old and dilapidated".
About 1390, the attackers could not visit masters of Castellane, do damage in the former castrum, break the bridge, destroyed villages and massacred defenceless communities. The city dei Castellane was then surrounded by good walls defended by towers, and filled with a multitude of men that fear had attracted from all sides and whose ardor rekindling at the sight of the danger threatening them. It closed its doors. The damage is indisputable, even though historians stray giving command of these troops to Raymond de Turenne himself, while it appears to be in Rouergue and the Cévennes during the last months of 1389, the first eight of 1390, and the comtat Venaissin at the end of the year.
The churches and notable buildings were demolished or significantly damaged.
The men of the jurisdiction of Moustiers and Castellane outside place of Vitrolles
The main strongholds of the vicomte de Turenne, which currently is not in Provence, suffer attacks; 120 of his men are captured in one day at les Baux and Saint-Rémy. Having sent Embassy on Embassy to stop attacks, and before the silence of the Queen, Turenne reached clans County with his men, view the causes of the futility of his actions: support Clement VII to his assailants and the ascendant that he took on Marie de Blois, which tacitly acquiesces. After oath to his captains not to take neither the Queen, nor his subjects (this war, instigated by the Pope, he said, the is not) it removes four or five seats to his enemies.
Before the inefficiency of operations and the officers who lead them, States gather in Marseille to set up a new system of defense. Enraged by these decisions, Turenne reminded Marie of Blois the commitments she has not required. She gives him the assurance that, upon the withdrawal of his troops, justice will be done. To convince him, she offers to marry his own son, Charles of Taranto, with his daughter, Antoinette de Turenne. A delegation sent by the Seneschal and Clement VII certifies Turenne that the current exercise is not directed against his person, and renews the promise of a settlement with the departure of its troops; States Embassy performs the same approach. Confident in the assurances received, it removes its troops in Italy. Second mistake: in Exchange for support of Charles VI, submitting to the will of the King, he renounces to join his daughter Antoinette to Charles of Taranto, and agrees to marry her to Jean Boucicaut, future Marshal. This is the break with Marie of Blois.
The Pope and the Queen Fund troops, but for lack of military jurisdiction, have not mastered the driving, which benefits their mercenaries, which plunder the country as much as those of Turenne. This, in the spring of 1394, see attacks multiply against its squares, even as he becomes aware of the duplicity of his son-in-law Boucicaut and the King of France. December 21, 1394 opens in Tarascon a lengthy trial judging a seditious Lord, without taking into account the reasons which led him to revolt against his sovereign, without mentioning the cause he defended but only the danger that it represents. The Georges de Marte Seneschal pronounced the sentence: Raymond de Turenne is sentenced to beheading. States that assemble the following days, confirm this determination: we will evacuate the Queen mercenaries who join their looting of the rebel bands. raise an army by Bailiwick or viguerie; push the seat of the main three enemy strongholds: Les Baux, Roquemartine and Vitrolles. before the latter, go men of Moustiers and Castellane, Digne, Grasse, Forcalquier, Sisteron, Seyne and Tallard (Hautes-Alpes). Decided to compensate for the inability of the comtal power and put an end to the war, the communities intend to take in more hands in more the conduct thereof.
Fall of Raymond de Turenne
The obstinacy that manifest the Viscount is largely explained by its real military power, its organizational competence, his ability to invest the majority of the territory. While, generally, truckers, exhausted once the country they occupy, are paying their departure and move to another region, it has installed its companies at home. A document written by his hand in occitan and kept at the National Archives, provides information in particular about its garrisons, internal structure and the territory that he entrusts to each of them to perform operations of intimidation and extortion: the palis. The palis is nothing else, indeed, that a convention by which a community, held under the threat of arms, ensures a provisional peace, limited to its terroir, with regular payments in money or in kind: wheat, wine, salt, etc.
His device revolves around three castles: Les Baux and Pertuis, he holds himself, and Meyrargues, held by his mother; and four other squares: Roquemartine, Vitrolles, Roquefure and Roc de Sanson (fortress that probably matches the current village of La Bastidonne). Next to this stable device, its companies take a set of a dozen of castra, which varies at the discretion of the military conjonture, including Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (Peyrolles Township) and Montfuron (canton of Manosque-Sud).
To each of his garrisons is assigned a territory within which it draws its own resources; has each of the men that are assigned the communities that he is instructed to submit to the patis, i.e. of racketeering.
By systematizing the patis, Turenne establishes a regular drain on the population in Exchange for a 'service': non-aggression. The tax burden of the public power, it tends to override its extortion, and has a double objective: the maintenance and control of his mercenaries, but also even more profound disruption of the State, by disrupting the puncture institutionalized by the tax. It is this constant threat for Provencal cohesion which will eventually cause a deep reaction of opinion and the loss of the disturber.
In the month of August 1390, punishing a collective awareness of the situation, the States taking, gathered in Aix, lay the Foundation for a strong burst. Participants are solemn promise no longer consent to no "patis", to build and to lend a hand each other. Thus crystallises a union bringing together all of the political body on the basis of a loyalty to rulers. Not only the establishment of an army and the necessary funding are once again decided, but concrete measures reflect the determination to tackle the enemy fortresses.
States meet again at Aix, from May 20 to June 14, 1397. Is the Seneschal Georges de Marte itself is given full powers to collect taxes and recover the arrears. It does not deprive threaten the wilted to obtain the necessary funds; in February 1998, it intervenes with Louis Bastard, hiyam and notary of the Court in Castellane, to pay him finally the 100 francs gold that it needs, contribution reaching him on 24 February; "on June 20, it requires again 100 guilders, advising his ' shit and good friend" that if it does not reach this amount, it will send the Commissioners the look of strength: "because it has a pressing need to get ahead of Roquemartine and Les Baux. castles currently "occupied by the vile Turenne brigands. In the framework the union assumed by the country, the comtal power finds its place and the conditions necessary for the exercise of its prerogatives through the person of the Seneschal.
A large and well framed army laid siege to Pertuis, probably in the fall of 1398. Its enclosure beaten in the face by a bomb, the place is carried away during November and December 10 States can be assembled. Provencal, well-structured, forces then invest Vitrolles, Roquemartine and Les Baux. Blocked away from the County, Raymond de Turenne has the worst difficulties to communicate with his men, reduced to the strictly defensive in their fortresses. Around the month of June 1399, the garrison of Roquemartine puts down arms against the sum of 3500 guilders. Early September, finally visits the fortress of les Baux, symbol of a rebellion which had acquired a poorly rated dimension up to our days. At the end of the year, the power of the Roger is annihilated in Provence. Eleonore de Comminges falls into the hands of Boucicaut and died imprisoned in February 1401. Raymond will end his life likely in its Viscount of Turenne.
Communities and warlords, the end of the 14th century at the end of the 15th century
Plague, wars, famine: the region has lost two thirds of its population
In the spring of the year 1348, the "black plague", bubonic form with variant pulmonary, terribly contagious disease, made its appearance in Europe, which it will possibly remove one-third of the inhabitants. A Castellane, where some dwellers of the Basse-Provence brought the epidemic by fleeing their cities affected, the ravages allegedly forced to abandon the town to not re-enter until several months later.
Ten years before the start of the scourge, Provence was already proven by serious economic difficulties. In our mountains, where grains are circulating, many communities, folded on themselves, were faced with starvation. Many farmers, impoverished and indebted with moneylenders, had left their lands. Then the internecine wars caused by the succession of Queen Jeanne, and their cruel pro-bores that bloody the end of the century, ceased to exasperate the situation. Still in Castellane, the Verdon, does not contain any solid dike, devastates the plain, invades the streets, cookie houses and fills the ruins of sand and gravel. Crop failures in addition to the abandonment of land. These evils, which succeed one another without respite, cripple the grain trade and cause hunger.
Conflicts, plague and famine reduced the population of Manosque, between 1338 and 1111, two-thirds of its heads of family. Riez, who had 875 families paying the albergue in 1315, has more than 166 in 1,120. The population of 16 towns and villages located surrounding the gorges du Verdon Tomb 1,366 lights in 1315 to 429 in 1371. Many houses are ruined, across the vineyards to the abandonment, unused land. The old pastures are almost all covered with bushes.
In contrast to what had happened in the high middle ages, the population of the pre-Alps of Provence is much more affected during the long depression of the late 14th century and early 15th century, than that of the maritime Provence. The demographic decline is more accentuated and the repopulation that occurs later, slower. However, as early as 1410, some signs of recovery will be seen. Since the expulsion of Raymond de Turenne, Provence is finally experiencing inner peace. Its princes, it is true, continue to impoverish the country men and resources with expeditions without results in the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily. If the economic situation improves slowly, it will take many decades still before the resumption of prosperity leads to a new demo-graphics boom.
Queen Jeanne abolished serfdom in Castellane (1352)
After the proclamation of the "laws and customs", by Boniface VI, then the takeover of the barony by the Barcelona administration, a fraction of the Castellane community enjoyed relative emancipation. In 1311, it shall submit to the comte de Provence various proposals for postage for those inhabitants still subjected to serfdom. She offers to pay an additional tax of twelve deniers per head per year pou get the equal status of the three classes which, in addition to the nobles and clerics, the make up. These serfs, 20 heads of families, are deeply miserable condition and the impossi¬bilite to pay whatever this thirst, how could consider purchasing their freedom? Despite the proposal of additional tax, it will have to wait another eleven years (10 October 1352) so on behalf of Queen Jeanne is proclaimed: "residents of Castellane and his Bailiwick are all free and clear '".
At the same time, the peasants of Trigance seem to enjoy some freedom, since they discuss with their Lord, and with him, make some decisions. Indeed, a partly eaten document, the oldest original Charter that retain the archives of this village, teaches us that in 1355 the population, aediles, and noble means delegates responsible for the construction of the parish church.
In fact, these negotiations demonstrate the backwardness of the communal organization in our region. Because for a long time, all members of the communities, even the "evil-serfs", had the faculty to meet and say run with their Lords, it is "customary law"; they have always had the possibility of deliberate in Assembly of the heads of families on matters of common interest and to establish public prosecutors to deal with warlords.
What is new, is the institution in the first half of the 14th century, the generality of the towns and villages in Provence, municipal Council, elected, renewable each year. It emerges from the docu - ment city that Trigance, as probably most of the villages in the region, is free. Although capital of Bailiwick, Castellane will have, it seems, hers until 1486.
Tributes to Queen Jeanne in 1351
Include tributes from 1351 to Queen Jeanne, apart from those of Moustiers and Castellane, that lend the communities themselves, as well as the Boniface de Castellane for their many seigneuries: Saint - Jurs, Roumoules, Esparron, Albiosc, Clumanc, Lambruisse, etc. With them, in that same year, did, in the region, these few Lords:
- Aiguines: Albert Blacas, who at the same time paid tribute to his other Lordships, including Baudinard, Bras D'asse, Estoublon and Thoard (today in the canton of Digne).
- Senez: Bishop. Better: chapter of Senez, Fouquet and Olivier de Blieux; Requiston de Blieux, which lent it to this Lordship two years earlier, at the same time as those of Saint-Jurs and Châteauneuf, does renew his gesture for the latter.
- Saint-Jurs: it even Olivier that pays tribute to the family of Blieux (here also Requiston did homage to Queen Jeanne two years earlier), but the lordship was at that time highly fragmented: do it with him, in addition to the major Lord Boniface of Castellane, six other co-seigneurs: Isnard de Paulet, Olivier de Thomas, Thomas de Levens, André de Raymond, Hugues de Vesian and Bertrand de Saint-Martin. Thomas de Ledesma will do so in 1371.
- Eoulx: four Lords who share this land: Thomas de Grasse which, in 1293, received Charles County 11 Eoulx rights in Exchange for those he owned in Castellane. there for successor to Eoulx his son, Raimbaud de Grasse, who is also coseigneur of Chasteuil, and will pay tribute to Queen Jeanne for these two Lordships in mome time (1371); Villemus Gaspard, a famous House in the region of Manosque and Forcalquier. Raymond and Bertrand Salvagni; the first, quoted again below as coseigneur of Robion, the second as coseigneur of Chasteuil and other places. Thirty years later, Queen Jeanne will give all the rights on this Lordship to the family of Raymond (1381), and many other Lordships again.
To the Demandolx Galvan: a seigneury in the sphere of Castellane but independent
Among the nobility that tribute in 1351 Queen Jeanne, do a place aside to Isnard, Lord of Demandolx. His family, during the next four centuries, will have other Lordships for a longer or shorter time, but will retain that of Demandolx until the Revolution. The elder branch will give two branches which will establish their jurisdiction on two communities of the gorges du Verdon: the Demandolx de Trigance and La Palud Demandolx.
Our Isnard, cited by Jean de Nostradamus, brother of the famous astrologer, in his book lives of the ancient Provencal poets (1575) as a poet of great merit, is the first to have paid tribute for the lordship (the first, in any case, which is the registered instrument). But his family is perhaps that of the Galvan: A Galvanegerius Raymondus was cited among the witnesses during the proclamation of the "laws and customs" by Boniface VI de Castellane (1252); 1278 count survey mentioned the brothers Jean and P. Galvan as Lords, to this date, of Demandolx, where they lived. an another Raymond Galvan responded, in 1297, most investigated on serfdom in the region; a "Galvand de Demandolx" also graze their flocks in 1300-1301 in the Bailiwicks of Brignoles and Saint-Maximin.
In his tribute to 1227, Boniface V de Castellane does not mention the lordship among those who report to him, but in 1238, it belongs not to the Bailiwick of Senez, nor do figure in the survey combines of 1252, which means that it is included in the zone of influence of Castellane. Mentioned clans list of castles existing to 1232, published by mouth: castrum Mandols, the first Château de Demandolx juchait, with its village on one of the peaks of the bar of the Goms, where there are still traces of facilities. In the life of saint lsarn, mention is made of this site: Saint Isarn had come to Castellane visit a Priory of his order, the Lord of the place of Demandolx, called Isnard, came to throw at his feet and conjured it emphatically to bless his Castle and its village extremely exposed to the lightning that was all years of terrible devastation. The saint refused first, by humility. But seeing the faith of the Lord, he went to the scene made the holy water, threw in the Castle and the other houses and it is a fact that since lightning is more fallen.
The parish church
The parish church of primitive, somewhat lower, bordered a small plain; on his probable location, a simple Chapel, dedicated to our Lady of Goms, is built during the 14th century, with apse in Tuff, apse on corniche a quarter round and full-bodied nave. About this building, we read in the minutes of the visit made bishop Soanen to Demandolx 15 September 1708: "the old church was once placed behind the Castle (14th century] and above;)" She is still, changed into a chapel, and the cemetery is still all attached [...] The former cemetery near Notre-Darne-de-Conche being without use, the new opened by a free passage on all sides. The chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Conche, above the Castle, has a picture of the Nativity of the Virgin, with two pillars or columns of plaster.
No doubt at the time where the former lineage takes its name from the lordship, or even where settled there a new family, a new Castle, abandoning the tops, stands le-des- and southwest of the first, at the top of a cliff in drop on three sides. This new position is still so remarkable that, two hundred and fifty years more later (1700), Geneviève de Forbin Janson, coming to marry Fortunat Demandolx II, wrote to his uncle, the cardinal de Forbin Janson, grand almoner of France and Minister of State: "Here I am casée way to see eagles on his back and take the moon with the teeth". It is this stately home that inhabits Isnard Demandolx, when he goes to Aix pay tribute to Queen Jeanne, November 26, 1351, in the presence of Bertrand de Sabran, Bertrand Albarici, and Jean Garde, Sisteron, notary of the Seneschal.
This new Castle as it stands today, relies to the East on a rock, and overlooks to the West the artificial lake from the top of a magnificent terrace of a cin-quantaine Castillon not. It is the work of three successive epochs: the West façade, must go up actually in the 14th century; the south facade is composed of three parts: the central body, built probably in the 16th century, while each side walls date from the sixteenth century, that is for the rehabilitation of the Castle after his fire during the wars of religion. At its foot, in the South, the second parish church, including the work of extension of the 15th century (Vault constructed without corniche, partly collapsed since twenty years, then Vault edge with pillar) have complied with the square apse, with vault on corniche concave, paired from the 14th century. the ruins of the second village, the last inhabitant, a shepherd, died there 30 years, now called city.
The territorial organization of the region in the 14th century
After his coronation in Avignon (1309), King County Robert received the homage of the nobles and the Trustees of the communities of Provence, grouped by jurisdictions or Bailiwicks. The Lords of the Bailiwick of Moustiers lent him personally tribute 18 December 1309; they were those of the Lordships of Chateauneuf, Saint-Jurs (Bertrand de Saint-Jurs), Blieux (Trenon de Blieux), Levens, Majastres (Boniface de Roumoules), La Palud (Priouret), Rougon, the hair, Roumoules, Germany, etc. Similarly, the next day, the Trustees of the Bailiwick of Moustiers (Boniface Latil and Boniface Montagnac for the city of Moustiers, Guillaume Arclouin for the castle of Rougon) lent him tribute through the Seneschal Raynaud of Lecco, as well as the Lords and Trustees of the viguerie of Draguignan and the Bailiwick of Castellane.
Twelve years later (1322) with fractions of the Bailiwicks of Brignoles and Saint-Maximin, and the jurisdictions of Aix and Draguignan, a new Bailiwick having Barjols for capital, includes among others the seigneuries of Viñón, Aups and Baudinard26. At the end of the 14th century, Provence has 9 jurisdictions (Aix, Draguignan, Hyères, Nice, Grasse, Forcalquier, Marseille, Tarascon and Arles) and 15 Bailiwicks, which those of Digne, Castellane and Moustiers, Baden. Bailliages and jurisdictions depend directly on the Court of Aix. Until the union of the Kingdom of France Provence (1481), the administrative organization of the territory will more change clans region, except the ephemeral creation of the small Bailiwick of Aups, removed and then attached to the Bailiwick of Baijols in 1443 and 1444.
Therefore, contrary to the wish of the inhabitants of Castellane, the expansion of their Bailiwick will never come true. At the same time it sought in 1341, his "malserfs", the community pre clearance indeed felt three other requests:
- Firstly, the annexation to the Bailiwick of the valleys of Colmars, Thorame, Barrême and Clumanc (belonging to the Bailiwick of Digne), villages Rougon and Majastres (Bailiwick of Moustiers), Trigance, Comps and Bargème (viguerie of Draguignan) and that of Briançonnet (viguerie of Grasse); the community rightly highlighted that these valleys and localities are closer to Castellane than capitals which they depend, and the upper Valley of the Verdon communicates with this city more conveniently than with worthy, especially in winter;
- Then the right to appoint a Municipal Council to manage the affairs that shall be borne by the community;
- Finally the grant of a fair of three days in September, to the nearby village of La Garde, and a fair of three days also, in December, for the town of Castellane. fairs where local dealers would be exempt from Leiden (duty levied by the comtal tax on products sold).
These three requests, the last two will eventually be heard, but never the first, although the lawyer and Attorney of King Guillaume Henri de Cadenet, on the order of the Seneschal Philippe de Sanguinet, has opened an investigation in Castellane, where he interrogated men of this city as well as Châteauvieux, Allos, Thorame and Barrême, well they have confirmed the arguments.
The viguerie or the Bailiwick are used often enough framework to representative assemblies, which we don't know about the shape and functioning, that they consist, it seems, of representatives of the clergy, the nobility and the communities. Sometimes, however, the delegates of the communities congregate only. So the Trustees of the Bailiwick of Moustiers would be gathered in Riez, in 1382, to protest against the abuses of Albert de Blacas, Lord of Aiguines, during the civil war, and send deputies to the Seneschal of Provence.
The title of Velasquez, initially reserved for the representative in the big cities and the County, subsequently spread to some important rural ridings. In fact, viguiers and bailiffs have the powers, duties, and in 1540, all exchanges are named for jurisdictions.
Yolande of Aragon, mother of count Louis III and mother-in-law of the King of France Charles VII, assigns Meyreste to the Lord of la Palud (1420)
After nine years of sterile fights, having failed in his attempt to regain the Kingdom of Naples, Louis II found a Provence exhausted (1399). What does not preclude, ten years later, directing two new campaigns in Italy, just as futile. Meanwhile (1401), married in Saint - Trophime Arles Yolande of Aragon, daughter of the King of Aragon and Princess French Yolande of Bar.
When Henry V of England and his army landed in Normandy (1415), is the cover of the hundred years war, a moment interrupted. The King of France Charles VI sank in the madness for 23 years. His wife Isabeau of Bavaria is ready for the worst abandonments. The rivalry of the Burgundians and the Armagnacs rips the Kingdom. Louis II, the war seizes clans its domains of Anjou and Maine, died at Angers (1417). His son, Louis III, aged less than 14 years old, succeeded him, and Yolande assumes the Regency with considerable skill. She ruled Provence until 1423, because the call of Pope Martin V, the young count attempt the reconquest of the Kingdom of Naples, that he will succeed in part. At the same time, during this period, Yolande of Aragon is desperately to subtract the dauphin Charles, who married his daughter Marie of Anjou, to the disastrous influence of Queen Isabeau, and teach him his trade of King.
While it still assumes the Regency, Yolande yields to Geoffroy de Castellane - Entrecasteaux, Lord of La Palud, "the bastide or massage of Meyreste" (1420) in compensation for services rendered to her husband Louis II for the reconquest of the Kingdom of Naples, including a donation of 100 florins or29. Yet Geoffroy of Entrecasteaux is still dissatisfied. Letters from the Queen, dated from Tarascon (4 April 1421), we learn it: the Lord of La Palud and Meyreste protest because if, by privileges, it enjoys in its two seigneuries of almost all the sovereign rights of justice, including the parent empire, i.e. the judgment of Adulterers, rape and crimes that led to bloodshed, the Royal Court has however reserved the last ordealresulting in the latter's Royal officers in some cases to justice, to his detriment.
Because of the services that he has rendered, Yolande grant him finally jurisdiction, punishment and execution of the last torture by his officers of justice of La Palud and Meyreste, and permission to erect the sinister forks on these soils.
From 1420, and much continuing to form a seigneury to share with its particular jurisdiction and its independent rights, the terroir of Meyreste will most never separate from La Palud, both will remain owned by the same aristocratic family and then, after the Revolution, will form a single municipality.
Meyreste: the castle of the 16th century
Semi-rural mi-seigneuriale home, rustic castle that we see today is more recent than "bastide or masage" ceded by Yolande of Aragon"... It is, indeed, in the form of a rectangular building of the 16th century, at two levels, with support diaphragm (related to the lime stone arcs) supporting the floor of the first floor. Reworked in the seventeenth century, with the addition of two towers; the upper level of one served Dovecote, with square gypsum until the ceiling cavities. On the ground floor, beautiful room, adorns a fireplace in the western part, and bears in the south facade. At the first level, the windows of
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
- Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
- Consequences of the wars of religion
- Taxes, debt and economic ruin
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge