1 week in the Gorges du Verdon= 2 campsites to discover the richness of this incredible site
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1 week in the Gorges du Verdon= 2 campsites to discover the richness of this incredible site
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Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
Marquis Pierre-Louis de Demandolx-La Palud, first consul of Aix and Attorney of the country (1787-1788)It is in Aix that the marquis Pierre-Louis de Demandolx, Lord of La Palud and Meyreste, married Anne-Thérèse-Adélaïde de Gueidan (January 24, 1745). She was ten years older than him, but also a dowry of 20,000 books. Daughter of Gaspard de Gueidan and Angélique de Simiane, Coste, it descends from a family enriched in trading. Advisor to the King, Président à mortier in the Parliament of Aix, Gaspard, father of Adelaide de Gueidan, including acquired the lordship of Castellet-Mousteiret (1720), and thirty years later, that of Lucille; These two Lordships are erected to a marquisate under the name of Gueidan (April 22, 1752).
Pierre-Louis de Demandolx pays tribute to La Palud and Meyreste in 1757 and 1778. Meanwhile, Adelaide died in La Palud (1766) at the age of (it years.) It will be the last member of the family to be buried in the stately Tomb. They had three children, including César-Amable and Jean-Gaspard de Demandolx. Born in La Palud on 6 November 1747, embarked on a frigate to rage's 17 years as a volunteer, César Amable spent at sea the rest of his short life (he died at age 38). Appointed lieutenant of vessel (March 1779), it is located in Port Royal, one of the islands of Martinique, there fell ill and died in December.
Became the eldest of the family, Jean-Gaspard gets permission to leave the order of the grand master of Malta. Sent in Lorraine to the age of 14, he had been placed under the authority of his uncle Scipio, garrisoned in Lunéville. Although quite small in size and quite delicate, he remained three months as a rifleman, then appointed, then Sergeant before be received as an officer. He married January 23, 1787, and shortly after, received from his father the seigneuries of La Palud and Meyreste. Marquis Pierre-Louis de Demandolx, meanwhile, stayed longer in La Palud, residing usually in Aix, where he came to swell the number of families of rural nobility urbanized and integrated into the "caste" of this nobility of the parliamentary robe who lives on a big foot in the beautiful hotels that it build, or the previous century has bequeathed to him. After having passed his rights to his son, he became first consul of Aix and Attorney of the country for the year 1787-88, at seventy-two years. With him were designated the well-known lawyer Jean-Joseph Pascalis as assessor, and Saint-Ferréol and Gerard as consuls.
Management of La PaludBut during the period where it has exercised direct control over La Palud, many conflicts have opposed it to the community. In 1746, he filed a lawsuit to the Council: invoking an old arbitration award of more than five hundred years (May 20, 1304) which attributed to the Lord "bannier" choice, he claimed put the retribution of it borne by the inhabitants. However the Community means already and pays a land guard responsible for the protection of crops. While refusing to compensate the ban - deny, it wished the continuation of this policy of the Lord next to his own "by the interest that the bannier appointed by the Lord does not tolerate the abuses that can commit the shepherds or in Illustrator that are the source of pasture, or with respect to fruit. Guard-land is not opposed to the banner; one and the other will fulfil their functions, one contributing to the custody of the terroir and the other by executing the sentences of the ban.
There was still further discussions and other trial.In 1783, the community must pay the costs, amounting to 2,473 pounds. Not having any money and too poor, she asked the intendant of the province the permission to borrow three thousand pounds ". It is even poorer, that year, as a result of several mau-difficult crops, it must rescue more than fifty families, almost half of the population, because wheat shortage and hunger threat. It will do that to aggra worm in the coming years.
Latent between the community and the Lord, almost general hostility in the countryside of Provence, dates back to La Palud to more than a century and a half, as attest to this judicial entanglements of 1620; the intendant of Provence Cardin Le Bret the mentioned as a fact of common knowledge in a letter of 2 July 1706; She has continued to fester throughout the century and will explode with force.
Trigance: Sage and misereuse communityAlready Anne-Marie de Demandolx, in the last years of his life, was leased to a bourgeois from Castellane Trigance Earth where she lived, while her husband, Cosme-Maximilien de Valbelle, had never resided prati-Cally, in Aix the burden of Président à mortier. Later, their daughter Margaret Delphine de Valbelle, and her husband Geoffroy de Valbelle, that don't come as fort rarely in their Lordships of Haute-Provence, have appointed General farmers from the land of Trigance, fat and Camus, notary and Prosecutor at the headquarters of Castellane.
However, when in 1753 Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle announces his next coming, in the company of his son and daughter-in-law, is party to the village. For testify them his respect as well as "the joy and the pleasure to see them in the country", the Council decided to provide 150 chickens, 1 quintal (40 kg) "of Nice lard", 1 quintal "of beautiful and good ham" and 4 fatty calves. In addition, it buys 1 hundredweight of powder for bravado, brought two tambourines and a Fife, and appointed a captain, a lieutenant, a Sergeant and a porte-enseigne responsible for "maintaining order".
To enjoy these relatively expensive liesse events, it must be remembered the sad state of municipal finance: previous year, a part of the population being devoid of wheat because of the bad harvest, the Council had to borrow £ 1,500 for to get, to make in September, time where individuals will have, their sidereimburse the advances it has made. This attachment that it has retained its Lords despite their remoteness, the community also manifest on the occasion of mourning: in 1755, when Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle loses his son, Council hastened to write him to assure him the part that people take to his misfortune.
Impoverishment of the region
One of the most spectacular causes of the impoverishment of the community, the erosion continues to degrade the soil. River water gully slopes, carrying "faisses" cultivated, bridges and railways. In 1759, the Council decides, after approval by the viguerie of Draguignan, a £ 3,000 loan to finance the construction of a bridge and nine on the jabron; he voted to cover this borrowing, a special tax of 2 books with side, for four years. Foreign Masons come bid, their fresh accommodation being taken into account by the community, or 2 pounds 4 cents per day for three meals and other expenses of Inn. Finally, it is a Grasse contractor who is in charge of the work in the best conditions. But soon, it raises the protests because it "is not good work and does not good mortar", thus making fear that the bridge "will be not strong as expected". Nevertheless, it was completed in 1761.
The irregularity of yields, result of excessive climate and degradation of the soil, has the effect to maintain a near-permanent scarcity. In 1764 and 1765, Council asked three times to the intendant of Provence the authority to borrow 1200 pounds to buy wheat, whereas "the great need of the poor" and "hunger there to find the wheat"; It chume power Jacques Alphand, first consul, and Antoine André, lieutenant of judge, "to stop all wheats that are in place", because "most of the people is... to hunger"; It also invites the Bishop of Riez, having regard to "the misery", permission to use 60 books from 'two Sunday'. The following year, it mandates the consuls to buy 20 loads (32 hl) of wheat and to go to La Palud to deal with Pierre-Louis de Demandolx marquis.
Winter is harsh in the VerdonOften the rigours of winter and frost add their misdeeds to those of torrential waters. In 1766, the cold and storms cause if serious damage that Trigance (and also the community of Castellane) Council apply for relief to the intendant of Provence. The following year, in a report to prosecutors in the country, it exposes the consequences of the damage caused by the cold and floods: new threat of food shortage and price raised grain. He at the same time requested intervention by the marquis de Castellane-Majastres, son-in-law of the Lady of Trigance AIX authorities. In 1768, it is a different scourge sweeping of fruit crops: caterpillars. In the absence of other remedies, the inhabitants seek Bishop of Riez permission "to do the abjuration" insects.
Following the devastation that caused overflows the Jabron and that experts estimate at 12,000 pounds, the community, who "is back" about 4000 pounds, prays the marquise de Valbelle (1771) to intercede with the prosecutors of the country for the rehabilitation of roads leading to Draguignan and Castellane, become impassable, and some compensation. Same approach, four years later, and restoration of the bridge of jumps, where one "who would spend recklessly would be in danger".
Although residing far from Provence, the Lady of Trigance seems to have never forgotten his small seigneurie arid and poverty-stricken. Also when it comes to Aix (1781), the Board delegates are Joseph Bouvier, j., and Roch Andre, consul, lieutenant to "make him compliment on his happy arrival in Provence, him testify envy that all his vassals would have in Trigance, assure him their respect and their submission, wish him any kind of happiness, prosperity and a long life", ask to continue his goodness... ".
Water damageIn the spring of 1783 is a terrible drought that destroyed the harvest clans throughout the region. The Council gives mission to the consuls to expose the misery of the place to the Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle Marchioness, which was of "all time felt the kindness and charity". For his part, he bought 25 charges (-10 hl) wheat "meslin", which it distributes to those who have the most pressing need, with rebate at the Saint Michel, number of inhabitants located "out of State to have credit".
Then thunderstorms cause new damage (1787). Need to replace the jumps wooden bridge, "a hideous precipice" makes it unusable by a stone bridge, and build a bridge over the Valley of Miessole, now impassable otherwise. The first consul request to the Assembly of the viguerie, convened in Draguignan, emergency road repair leading to Castellane, "quite impractical and nevertheless the most frequent", trade fairs which are held in this city allowing residents of Trigance to some trade. The viguerie promises 400 pounds, and Jean André Audibert, Rougon, agrees to make the repairs for this price.
The marquise Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle being deceased, Trigance and Estelle enures to his daughter, Marguerite Delphine Alphonsine Valbelle, and her husband, the marquis Antoine Henri de Castellane - Majastres, which will keep them, with their other Lordships, until the French Revolution. Like the previous ones, the new Lords do never live their mountain castles but sometimes wear some attention to their distant subjects.
The Council calls upon Marguerite Delphine Alphonsine (1787) to employ 2,000 books bequeathed by his mother, to the payment of arrears of taxation, which exceed 5,000 pounds. He promises to exempt each year, thanks to the use of this gift, the poorest of the population. The operation will conform as well for the now-defunct benefactor, who had intended to participate in the expenditure of the bridge (built in 1760), main cause of arrears; It will be just as much the personal will of the new Lady of Trigance, who wishes to affect the pension of those 2000 Books placed in interest "at the discharge of the sizes of the poorest".
ExodusSclerosis affecting the rural economy of the Haute-Provence before the Revolution and the decline of production give rise to the exodus of part of the population to the campaigns and the most welcoming cities of Basse-Provence. To try to improve the lot of the people and stop their emigration by giving them the book, Trigance Council wants to increase the cultivated areas. In 1759 and 1760, he requires of the marquise Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle permission to inoculate for nine years the mussel grazing of the plain of coal and Villar for the consideration expressed in 1686 and 1687 to Barthélemy de Demandolx. The Lady of Trigance returns it to Salies, "his attorney general". He renewed his petition with insistence (December 5, 1762). However, some people fear that these new deforestation accelerating the destruction of soils; a few weeks after its installation, the new Commission revokes (February 27, 1763) the decisions taken by the previous, on the pretext that they are also contrary to the decisions of the Parliament that detrimental to the interests of the King and the public. He recalled that these lands are indeed of large and small oak "of hope for the construction", and which the glandage is an important income for the community. Finally, he explains that it would be exposed to lose not only "the fruits of this district," but still the Fund of light and sandy land that the rain carries.
This reasoning, which refuses to further endangering the future, would be without blemish if it is first to save the present by giving food to those who are hungry. The people who hold it are relatively comfortable and demonstrated when, to silence proponents of the clearing, they claim to condemn the access at the meetings of the Council with voting rights, to individuals with less than 100 books aside cadastral. It is therefore not surprising that the following year, the new Board revokes the previous Council's deliberations in turn, and vote the execution of clearance decisions in December 1762. He proceeded to cultivation (1765) in accordance with the manner used previously in similar circumstances: to clear land are divided into parcels equal and drawn at random; each individual must cultivate its "faisse" in the course of the year, under penalty of forfeiture of his rights and dispossession by first-come; It must also pay double tithe on all harvested grains, and trample on communal areas under penalty of 30 pounds fine and confiscation of jets. Experts are appointed, who mission to ensure the implementation without delay of these decisions, because hunger threatens once again; they enforce the prohibition of cut oak, only being allowed the scrub and the lopping of pines; They ensure that all lands are seeded in the year, retaining, as usual, a cattle crossing.
Jean-Gaspard de Demandolx - La Palud (1787)On the eve of the Revolution, the branch garlicky Demandolx family, unable to stem its decline, is forced to cede his lordship of Demandolx. Amazing contrast, the younger branch of the Demandolx - La Palud, through a series of happy alliances, reached its peak: father accumulated in Aix workloads and honors; the son, after she married one of the richest heiresses of the high OM trading, adds Demandolx Lordship-mother to his own Tercentenary heritage: La Palud and Meyreste. The power of the younger Branch last however that a short period of time, the great shaking social and political is going to change destinies. Born April 8, 1733, Pierre Jean-Baptiste Alexandre de Demandolx, son of Pierre de Demandolx, seigneur de Demandolx, and Gabrielle de Castellane of Aluis, received minority in Malta. He was only 11 years old, but will leave never the order, even after 1777 when, on the death of his elder brother, it will have inherited Demandolx Earth. Captain in the Régiment Dauphin Infanterie page of 30 years, he was removed from active service ten years later, having failed to appoint Lieutenant-Colonel. He accepts the estate of his father (1781) under benefit of inventory, having regard to the huge liabilities, about 115,000 pounds. After having exhausted his personal fortune to repay part of the debt, he resolves to make donation of the land of Demandolx, that it keeps the usufruct, to his nephew Jean-Gaspard de Demandolx-La Palud, provided that it turns off the rest of the debt, is 80,000 pounds approximately. He took his vows professed Knight of Malta and receives the commanderie of the bearings, in Gévaudan, attached to the grand Priory key Gilles. During the Revolution, he emigrated first to Puget Theniers (February 1792) then, a few months after, will return to Castellane. His nephew Jean-Gaspard begins to repay the debt on the land of Demandolx. At the age of 38, he married Jeanne-Rosalie Borély, 21 years, daughter of François Toussaint Borély and Marie-Catherine de if Irian. The ceremony is held at the Château de Bonneveine by Jean-François de Demandolx, the Church of Marseille theologal, vicar general of the diocese.
The "present"Among benefits feudal to which are subject communities, one of the most common is the "present" that the people need the Lord when he married his son; marquis Pierre-Louis de Demandolx has therefore advised the consuls of La Palud, the establishment of Jean-Gaspard; the community, regardless of the State of its finances, cannot avoid its duty. Readings of the letter of the Lord before the Council, which takes the following decision: "the Council has learned with a sensitive pleasure and the satisfaction the next establishment of Mr le Marquis de Demandolx son, by reading that comes from it be made of the letter that Mr Marquis, Lord of this place, gave the honor to several consuls. Advisement unanimously of him testify and Mr de Demandolx son, joy and tenderness that took all the inhabitants of this place, to make them more honest compliments and most sincere for and on behalf of the community, and in addition and in recognition of their kindness and generosity, Council charge several consuls sayings of make a present to the Lord of the sum of 300 pounds, eight pairs of partridges and two hares to largest brand of our eco-friendly commitment and without gaining as a result; the present will be presented to the Lord said by Mr. Turrel, first consul, who will take the money necessary for the award of the community to do this says and the journey". It is a few weeks later that Pierre-Louis gives to his son Jean-Gaspard La Palud and Meyreste, however reserving a pension of 3000 books and housing for him and his daughter Abbess of the liieux, in the castle of La Palud.
So the fiefs of Demanclolx, La Palud and Meyreste are, from 1787, possession of a single Lord. The land of Demandolx is estimated at 150000 books.
For its part,Jeanne Rosalie Borély, wife of Jean-Gaspard, belongs to a powerful "caste" very closed, comprising only a few tens of families of industry, finance and high OM trading. In addition to the inheritance she expects from her mother and who should rise to 60000 francs, she brings to her husband almost 290000 francs. In September 1789, at the beginning of the Revolution, Jean-Gaspard will spend a few weeks in Bayeux, in Lorraine infantry regiment, where he served again with the rank of captain. Then he lives at the end of the year, with his wife and his in-laws, to Avignon, in a Mr. Teste, street of the cross. In February 1790, he will send his resignation of officer and emigrate in Switzerland.
In the other Lordships in the regionSince the 16th century, the number of Lordships divided into co-Seigneuries or dismembered in under-fiefs, continued to multiply, while increased in proportion to the possessors of these crumbs lands. In this crowd of warlords, which we list only the main, some are newcomers to the region, many old families had transferred their possessions as a result of marriages or sales. The feudal State ends with the Ancien Régime. But these small warlords or co-seigneurs, 17th century notably, are from men of churches, sailors, mathematicians who will have their hours of glory, and especially the greater part of the bourgeoisie in the following centuries, whose descendants are today scattered in all Provence.
• Better: always has major Lords the Pontevès: François made tribute in 1672, Charles in 1739. Other families however settled: François de Simiane - Pontevès, who was also coseigneur of Châteauneuf, had the Crown, here, his daughter Maria Theresa; It has brought its rights to François - Alexis of Antoine (tribute in 1711), which had itself even for successor.Jean Joseph-Jacques Antoine; It was sold to Joseph of Engelfred (tribute in 1769 and 1775), which inherits from Louis Joseph of Engelfred.
• Chasteuil: Puget family continues with stone, then Hubert, who gave in part (1665) to Charles Davenport; He had to successors Joseph and François (homage set in 1673), Jean-François (1686), Jean-Louis (1694), and Joseph Pierre (1767).
As the Davenport family, if it preserves the fief of Brunet until the French Revolution, it stopped here at the dawn of the 17th century; before Arthur, then Jean, Counsellor to the Court of Auditors, Charles, Adviser to the Parliament of Provence and purchaser of Hubert de Puget, and Gaspard, Commander of the order of Saint John of Jerusalem, occupied the first three quarters of the 17th century; then John and Louis (homage set in 1673), Joseph (1686). On the other hand, a new family, the Latil, is installed, from the Latil, Lords of Taloire, just like the Suns Latil, we're going to find. of one of these branches will be born (1761) and Jean-Baptiste de Latil, future Archbishop of Reims, cardinal, then Chaplain of the comte d'Artois.Chasteuil, Gaspard de Latil acquired Joseph of Davenport and paid tribute in 1719. He has been sued (1723) by the prior of the place, Jean-Baptiste Mainard, on the subject "rights of tithes of hemp in the noble land of Saint-Martin and grain clans grounded gaste". His son and heir, Antoine, had itself also tangled with Chasteuil prieur-cure, Jean-Pierre Ganclalbert, he did condemn (1741) to pass"recognition of the areas that it has audit terroir" and "pay him for twenty years of rights of compensation". It seems indeed that there is little good natured clans family: in 1723, there had been already trial to quarrel and affray in the public square of the village between Françoise of Henris, wife of Antoine and Delphine de Demandolx, wife of Claude de Latil, Lord of Suns. Antoine had two sons, Henry-Gaspard, who succeeded him as coseigneur and other Antoine, an infantry captain; the two brothers get an award (1773) condemning Jean - Joseph Imbert, coseigneur of le Bourguet, "to the neglect of the bastide de L'adoux" (close to Trigance) in their favour; François de Latil inherits the coseigneurie.
• Saint-Martin: landlocked in the seigneury of Chasteuil, on the edge of the Verdon, was elevated to the rank of arriere-fief (1635) for the Laurens family, Halil Ibrahim original. Its first Lord, Honoré de Laurens, married Isabeau de Demandolx (we don't know to what branch linking), has a son also named Honoré; three years earlier, one of the two Honoré, "saying Lord of Saint-Martin" had been in trouble with the law for insulting Jean Tassis, lieutenant of the Seneschal in Castellane. Descending direct Honoré II, Laurens Joseph, Captain in the regiment of Poitou, had no doubt financial concerns, because he continued to wear (1710) a merchant of Castellane, Jérôme Louiquy, and does condemn Pierre Périer, clerk of the sénéchaussée, to the payment of a promise of 702 books. That has not prevented to buy (1735) the Agency "Advisor of roy, former Mayor mitriennal and AC of the town of Castellane". His successor at the head of the seigneury of Saint-Martin, ClaudeScipion, also acquired rights to Taulanne; at his death (1781), it leaves these two Lordships to his son Joseph-Barthélemy.
• The Clue: Pierre Bertet, bourgeois of Moustiers of comtadine origin, bought in Jean de Pontevès, heir of Gaspard de Kinteves, the small Lordship located on the territory of the current commune of Moustiers. the new noble made tribute in 1634, as did after him Jean de Bertet (1638), Jean-François (1695 and 1719), judge royal de Moustiers, Joseph-Ignace (1724 and 1729), finally Gaspard-Nicolas de Bertet (1775). At a trial of Moustiers community against the Lord of the Clue (1771) about the property boundaries, exhibits date back to 128613. An another Jean-François Bennett of the Clue, born in Moustiers in 1696 and died after 1765, was appointed head of wing (1755). The Bennett have never lived the bastide of war drawn up before 1189 by the comte de Provence on a strategic peak commanding the Roman road, and redesigned at the end of the 14th century by Giraud de Villeneuve or Jean de Pontevès. at the eastern end of their land, they were building a Marina, under the shadows of a spacious site: the Valonge Valley is place to fields that perhaps was a Gallo-Roman villa, each labour traced to the agenda of legylac debris. only remain of the castle ruins and a beautiful Dovecote.
• Eoulx: after Raymond Joseph, the Builder of the present Castle, Jean de Raymond lent tribute in 1699, Caesar did to turn in 1711 and 1723. Probably he experienced trouble of money, because a sentence (1733) authorizes Alexandre Panisse and Dominique Crep, "receivers", to sell by way of justice "25 horses, 5 mares and 5 foals before Raimond Caesar, Lord of Eoulx and ibrenq, at the request of Jean Mugin, receiver for la ferme du Roy in Grasse'" '. Then came Claude (tribute in 1710 and 1775), who took the title of marquis, Secret, finally, in 1730.
• Levens: one of the Lordships inherited by Isabeau of Baschi of Louis de Baschi and that she had brought (1608) to her husband, Claude de Grasse. But it has transferred more to the Castellane family: those of Trévenans (1616) and Estoublon (1621) to Antoine de Castellane, and first of Levens (1612) to Paul de Castellane. The latter rendered tribute in 1612, as is his successors, including Marc-Antoine in 1618, and Joseph in 1784. From the comtadine family Inguinbert of Pramiral originally from Austria, Pierre of Inguinbert bought a portion of this fee (1637). He had for successors Charles-François, which made tribute in 1673, François Gaspard which renewed it in 1717, then Joseph-Charles of Inguinbert until the Revolution. Joseph de Valbelle has also the rights acquired. Cosme-Maximilian, husband of Anne-Marie de Demandolx-Trigance, inherited it, then his daughter Marguerite-Delphinee.
• Majastres: the Ferrier family has more possessions since Antoine de Ferrier, late 15th century. Castellane remained major Lords; successive Scipio (who acquired at least in part the lordship of Taulanne), Horace, Louis and Charles (tribute in 1672) and Henri (in 1698, 1703 and 1717). Henri-Gaspard (in 1723). After Antoine-Henri, married to Marguerite Delphine Valbelle Alphonsine, Lady of Trigance, come Joseph (1784), finally Henri-César (in 1787). But Alexandre de Blacas has also a parcel of the seigniory (177518 tribute).
• Robion: more Lord for two centuries, there's nobody having succeeded to Antoine de Saint-Marc, purchaser (1574) of the Royal Court of the domain.
• Rougon: sold by the Tarclivy family at the Abbey of Lérins (1732), rest possession of it until the end of the Ancien Régime.
• Saint-Jurs: Although shared between several co-seigneurs, preserved since the 14th century and until the French Revolution, as major Lords Castellane. During the 17th century, were indissociable Toussaint Antoine (tribute in 1723;) Jean Baptiste de Castellane (1756), finally Alexandre-MelchiorMarie-Philippe, Chamberlain to the Duke of Orléans, Maréchal de camp, married in 1786 Sophie de Mirabeau Curiol Deyo. The family of Foissard, after providing the co-seigneurs for more than two centuries, stopped in the middle of the 17th century with Antoine II; "he had married Françoise de Gombert, widow of Claude de Demandolx, seigneur de Demandolx and Châteauvieux, death in a duel (1664) in the streets of Air". Other families have acquired rights: Jean-François de Roux, already coseigneur of the Perugia and of Castellard (municipalities of the canton of Digne); Antoine Roux - Arbaud, who inherited the rights of his mother, Marguerite de Foissard (tribute in 1699), a successor François and Jacques de RouxArbaud (tribute in 1768); Jean-Baptiste Goldsmith - Bremondiere (tribute in 1723) who succeeded his widow, Marguerite de Félix (tribute in 1728); Paul Brunet, coseigneur of Estoublon, and his heir Paul II of Brunet (tribute in 1778 for Saint-Jurs and Estoublon).
• Taloire: the Ledesma family, originally from the region of Arles, installed early in the 16th century, Claude de Latil having acquired the fief in 1603 of G. Rémusat; his son, Paul. On the eve of the Revolution, the Lord of Taloire is Brown of Muljoux, akin to the Brun de Castellane, former Lords of Rougon.
• Suns: formed in arriere-fief by dismemberment of Taloire (1670) to Honoré de Latil, avocat à la cour, who married this year with Thérèse de Hardeep Singh, daughter of Henri de Hardeep Singh, coseigneur of le Bourguet, and Anne de Mirabeau. It was to heirs Claude de Ledesma, who married Delphine de Demandolx - La Palud.
• Senez: bishops, making regular tribute from the 15th to the 16th centuries, continue to share the Court with the family of Gauthier: Jean-Baptiste (tribute in 1723) then Antoine finally Antoine Caesar de Gauthier.
• Taulanne: Lordship given partly by King René, in 1454, in the chapter of Senez (tribute in 1506 and 1548) and in 1471, to Jean and Guillaume Albert. Then at the end of the 15th century, Elzéar de Richieu was owned, at least in part (tribute in 1573). Scipio of Castellane - Majastres held it during the first half of the century following (tribute in 1610 and 1628), with Pierre de Castellane as successor. In the other half of the 17th century, settled the Garcin family: Pierre de Garcin bought it in 1675; Joseph-Félix (tribute in 1688);Finally Antoine, who had no direct heir. In the 18th century, François Périer, whose family owns several Lordships in the region of Barrême, especially at Clumanc, as well as those of the guard and the hair, has obtained rights to Taulanne (1735). It holds until the Revolution, just as Joseph Barthélémy de Laurens, successor to Claude Laurens Scipio (tribute in 1739 and 178023).
• Villars-Brandis: with more than Lord from 1385, the community itself had held feudal rights since it made tribute in 1688. However, during the last half century of the Ancien Régime, the family of the ABUDU, Lords of Constant, Méouilles and other places in the region of Saint-André, has at least a part of the lordship: Antoine Ailhaud, who settled in 1731, followed by François.
• Le Bourguet: Lordship, which was already very divided, past in the 18th century, from nine to twelve co-seigneurs, among which four nobles: the Counselor of Estienne, Edouard de Lyle, Lord of Taulane (the terroir of La Martre), Perrot and Raymond-Eoulx; as Borelli, Laurensi ensures that it merited lawyer clu King place in our Sénéchaussée upon its establishment in 1640. He was the author of a manuscript history of the town of Castellane.
The third estate denounces the supremacy of the nobility to the States of Provence
Before the serious crisis where sinking national Finance Minister Calonne made accept by an Assembly of notables that Louis XVI had convened at Versailles (February 1787), the institution throughout the Kingdom of provincial assemblies. This decision in Provence meets a virtually unanimous political claim. The States of Provence were suspended in 1639. Since their vacancy, the General Assembly of the communities, which is held annually, brings together the prosecutors of the country, delegates of the nobility, the clergy, and members of Parliament, often noble too, 37 privileged communities formerly represented in the States; in all, some 60 personalities, including more than a third of the nobility or the Church. Its discussions are usually headed by the intendant of Provence.
Agent of the central power, the intendant, whose creation is the most flagrant violation has suffered over the centuries the Provençal constitution, has extended little by little his eminent authority in all Affairs of the province. The General Assembly of the communities is working with him for maintenance of roads, agriculture and relations with communities. She never discusses his wishes, if to issue protests of circumstance when drawing up new taxes.
A number of nostalgic of the old Provençal constitution grouped around Aachen lawyers, including counsel Jean-Joseph Pascalis, clamoring for 1770 a convocation of the States. The nobility lends a complacent ear to this claim. The creation of the provincial assemblies throughout the Kingdom, which attaches the Minister of Brienne, who succeeded Calonne, therefore meets a favourable reception. At the same time, it raises the question of the composition of the States: on what grounds together them again? Here, the answers are diametrically opposed.
Composition of the States of ProvenceWhen the States of Provence met in the last century, the three orders operate: nobility, clergy and representatives of communities, i.e. the third State. The vote was "per head" and not "by order", and decisions were taken by the majority of votes. This mode favoured the nobility, by far the most represented. also now it denies with force any changes.
To serve on the States, nobles had to possess a fief, which has stopped cause the protests of the other gentlemen, which constitute the vast majority of the nobility. Members of the clergy were the bishops and archbishops of Provence, over the Abbots of monasteries; considered as the delegates of the subordinate clergy while in fact, there is no unity between them and it.Finally the representatives of communities, or third-party-State, were chosen among the elected representatives of the 37 towns and major villages (members of Marseille and Arles sitting Alternately, the first numbered years, the latter odd years).
The third estate agglomerates the bourgeoisie, artisans and farmers. The bourgeoisie includes dealers, business leaders and officers of justice; his influence continues to grow, together with his fortune and his knowledge. In its ranks are writers, scholars, artists. So this new class, intelligence and knowledge, is also that of economic power.
The peasants formed the majority of the population. Each bought the land that they farm and have become owners; the richest of them, household, have holdings of 5 to 15 ha. The others are farmers or sharecroppers, on fields owned by nobles or burghers. They complement their resources when they can, through the practice of ancillary trades: innkeeper, farrier, etc. It is therefore within the third estate a deep separation between the bourgeoisie and the mass of the people, which tends to assert itself as a fourth State. It is the third-State, however, bourgeois and farmers gathered, which bears the weight of taxes.
The clergy, for its part, formed his fortune over the centuries by the accumulation of grants for, in principle, the needs of worship, to care; and the poor maintenance of schools It cannot thus subject it to tax without being guilty of plunder. As the nobility, the royal power is managed to reduce its feudal rights leaving his privileges, the most important being the tax exemption. It is therefore on the people and the bourgeoisie that are rejected for multiple charges and contributions that the other two orders are refusing to pay.
A more equitable distribution of loadsAlso the representatives of the communities are demanding vehemently a more equitable distribution of the burdens and the subjugation of the orders at the national taxation. They require the convening of the States, but oppose any meeting in the form and composition of the old who, giving owners of fiefs overwhelmingly, although minority even within their order, means the prospect of a more just tax distribution. The nobility intrigue in the Court of Louis XVI; It is heard: two sessions are convened in Aix (December 1787 and January 1789) in the old form.
In 1788, the Board of Aiguines sends Stone Lions to the Assembly of the viguerie of Moustiers, who must appoint a Deputy to the Assembly of the third estate; It is indeed convened in may at Lambesc, in extraordinary session, by of Boigelin, Archbishop of Aix, president of the States of Provence, to deliberate on "Affairs of State".
Trigance, the Council proposes to elect the Member of the viguerie of Draguignan in the assembled of Lambesc "without regard to the turn of the wheel". This member must insist that the clergy and the nobility, masters of "the greater part of the property Fund of the Kingdom", are required to contribute to the impositions of the King, and 'so that in the future the votes of the third State does Althought not smothered by the number'.
In 1789, the Board of Aiguines mandate François Gros, Mayor and first consul, to the Assembly of the viguerie of Moustiers, convened (January 12) to designate a member of the Assembly of the province, while, for its part, the Council of Trigance sends Antoine Aicard and Jacques Cartier, first and second consuls, to the Assembly of all three levels of the viguerie of Draguignanconvened to appoint one or more representatives of the third estate to the Assembly of the Province "in which, according to the country's constitution, must be the deputation to the States-General of the Kingdom" and to bring the register of grievances, reprimands and complaints from the community. As the Council of La Palud, delegates to the Assembly of Moustiers Jean Carbonel, consul, and Joseph Bourillon, former lieutenant general at the headquarters of the city of Digne, commanding them orders "to all protests they are good for the interests of the community and that of the viguerie and requisi-tions". It also appoints Joseph Bourillon, Joseph Gibelin, Antoine the altar and Honoré Turrel to draw up the list of the concerns of La Palud. This deliberation, taken by all the inhabitants of the community, is then signed by those who know how to write: twelve signatures are at the bottom of the document.
The list of the concerns of la Palud"The Council adopted that as objects that interested the generality of the Kingdom, MPs Lords who will have elected in the order of one-third to assist and steal in the States-General of France, will be specifically responsible for soliciting the reformation of the civil and Criminal Code, an allocation to those of the boroughs of sovereignty to the extent of a specific sum; the repeal of all intrusive letters to the freedom of the citizens; the faculty to those of any kind be they compete for all military jobs, benefits and expenses conferring of nobility, and claiming mostly against the venality of offices. Said several members will also demand a moderation in the price of salt, as also the abolition of all rights of movement in its interior, and in particular the setbacks of the bars of treaties within the borders. As to cases and specific to the province, the Council charge by express who are representatives in the Assembly convened in the city of Aix, insist and ask the best of votes the General call of the three levels of the province to form or alter the constitution of the country; claim of righteousness be permitted municipalities to appoint a trustee to the inputs to the States; to stand against the perpetuity of the Presidency and the permanence of any behaviour member with the State of things entered in such States, as also require the exclusion of the same States, magistrates and all officers attached to fixed, the disunity of the procure of Consulate of country of the city of Aix;the admission of gentlemen not owners of fiefs, and the clergy of Second order, equality of voices for the agenda of the third party against those of the first two orders, both in the States than clans the intermediate commission; and especially equal contributions for all Royal and local charges without exemption no and notwithstanding any possession or privilege; the annual printing of key Province consignment accounts will be done in each community; and that the distribution of relief given by Roy to the country together from the imposition of fifteen pounds by fire assigned to the haute province will be made in the bosom of the States.
"The Council declares moreover that, as for other objects, is General to the Kingdom, following specific to the Province, it will refer absolutely general conditions which will be developed in the capital through the voice of the next Assembly, or that the order of one-third will determine the revision for the action of its deputies to the estates-General; yet" approval from now everything will be done and arrested either in the Assembly of the capital, or in those of the communities and jurisdictions".
In Aix, the States of Provence therefore stand as runs the election campaign for the States-General of the Kingdom. The 62 members of the third clash 19 representatives of the clergy and the 128 possessing noble fiefs, challenging the legality of the Assembly and demonstrate that the privileged refuse to any real concession. The royal Government believes interrupting the session of January 31. Throughout the Kingdom, calls for the convening of the estates General. In a few months, selfishness and lack of understanding of the privileged override local demands by taxpayers, national aspirations. Therefore, the public feeling is detached from the province and that the "Patriot" soul is formed at its expense.
1789 famine...The approach of the States General of the Kingdom, finally announced for May 5, 1789, inflames the minds. Enthusiasm sometimes turns to riot, so once more, it is the extreme misery; for several years, the crops are bad and sometimes zero.
In La Palud, in 1783, more than fifty families are demanding an emergency due to the drought. The municipality must procure fifty loads of wheat meslin to lend it to the needy. The same year, Aiguines, the Council asked the intendant of Provence the faculty to buy 40 loads (64 hl) of wheat meslin to distribute to the people, and make a loan for this purpose; It is seeking at the same time the Bishop of Riez permission to undertake a Novena of prayers "for God's mercy he sends rain".
At Moustiers, in the same year the community votes one "purchase of bled in the company of Africa, Marseille: 100 loads of bled or meslin, this saw the misery of the people and the scarcity of grain, whose price has increased significantly". The following year, the residents have not yet paid this grain, a year of misery overtaking difficult.
In 1786, in La Palud, storms devastate the fields just after it had planted; We are obliged to start again, the peasants who sow not new will reap nothing. In December, the Council of La Palud appealed to the generosity of the administrators of the Province to get a relief; We can no longer pay taxes, there is more to live. In 1788, a terrible storm carries a large part of the fodder and seriously damage other crops. Also, in 1789, from January onwards, famine made its appearance. Several families of La Palud have more wheat; in March, it is half of the population who has and knows how to live; calls for help to the Community Council; "it made buy large quantities of grains and lends people devoid of resources, the latter if committing to make wheat when they have returned their crops". The Council of Trigance loads Jacques Aicard, negotiating, to draw up, together with the first consul, on the invitation of the third estate of Provence, an accurate assessment of damage caused by the harsh winter, thunderstorms and hail.
...And the riots in the regionIt is the high price of wheat which, in March 1789, pushed the population of Riez, ordinarily so quiet, to rise against the Bishop, Mgr. de Clugny, which requires it of the royalties might be a long fallen into oblivion. At Manosque, in the announcement of the passing of Bishop de Saint-Tropez, accused of speculating on wheat, the population is gathered, hue the prelate, he throws balls of snow and stones. He has just time back in her carriage and flee to gallop"'. The accusations are perhaps unfounded; in any case, this aggression will have a big impact through Provence.
The same month, at Moustiers, population rushes to attics where is stored the wheat of the ecclesiastical tithes, and notes the Council not without an ambiguous regret, the prior "was forced to deliver his wheat at a price of 32 pounds, and meslin 24." He agreed, it is true, in this expedition, but none can conceal that the sacrifice was forced, however the people held about waiting for his charity. "The part of the wheat that was delivered has been consumed by the poor class of pais '; as a result, the Council decided to compensate the prior.
A riot broke out in Mezel because of a right of "picket" or tax on flour: reaching the food itself of the poorest, this fee appears scandalous; the two surveys of 1729 and 1765 coinciding with counts, one of the heads of household in souls of communion, show that it is the "stake" of flour that affects the hardest people and accounts for at least half of the indirect income. For the abolition of this tax, the men of Mezel, weapons of batons, shouting and threatening death consuls, run through the streets to the sound of two drums and a Fife, invade the Town Hall.
Aiguines, where poverty is at its height, the Commission seized grain that lie between the hands of the farmers of the tithe, and distributes them to people. In Aups, the Treasurer of France's Brouilhony of Montferrat was assassinated. On the eve of the riot at Moustiers, in the Parliament of Provence, the clergy and the nobility have abandoned their privileges. But while the clergy confirms its waiver of the privilege tax (April 21), the nobility form reservations which destroy the scope of his... Little is also important! The public pays more attention to what is happening in Aix. The Provençal Constitution is well dead. The eyes are now turned towards Paris and Versailles.
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
- Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
- Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
- Consequences of the wars of religion
- Taxes, debt and economic ruin
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge