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Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
Two major policies face to face: the count Raimond Bérenger V and V Boniface de Castellane
Albert Blancas-Baudinars married the daughter of Pons Justas, Lord of Aignuines
According an arbitral award, Boniface III was killed in 1195 by Augier Spada, coseigneur of Riez. Determined to avenge the murder of his father, Boniface IV said le Roux, would have given its share of jurisdiction over Puimoisson Blacas of AUPs, husband of his sister Laure, so it helps exercise the death penalty; in 1202 the clause was not filled, Hugues Raimond, Bishop of Riez, would have quashed the donation. But the Charter which would have related causes and circumstances of the arbitral award remains questionable because only found.
Whatever it is, in the year 1195, Boniface IV, said le Roux, and his wife Hon. increase the funds of the Templars du Ruou sacrificing new land on the seigneury of Villecroze, then in 1205, in presence including Boniface of Robion, allowing them to graze their flocks on the range of the seigneury. Always in Villecroze, it passes an agreement with the Church, which is part of Saint-Victor, and in 1214, him among others gives a House and a serf of Salernes.
Alphonse I sign agreements with Guillaume IV, count of Forcalquier (1193): his youngest son to succeed him as the head of the County of Provence under the name of Alphonse II, married the heiress of Guillaume IV (1195), preparing the way for the union of the County of Forcalquier and the Provence. Marriage that has consequences indirect clans our region: Guillaume IV's niece, Béatrice de Sabran, married in 1206 Justas, perhaps original Aragonese, future ball of Forcalquier, general agent, and somehow, Minister in Provence of Alfonso II, and executor if this is inspiring policy Raimond Bérenger V in Haute-Provence from 1217 to 1226. Justas the Moustiers-related would be established in the region of Aiguines towards the end of the 12th century; they have raised the Castle whose ruins stand near the chapelle Saint-Pierre (later built on the site of the castle chapel). Fifty years later, a Pons Justas is Lord of Aiguines; Thierry Pécout ensures that he is son of Guillaume de Moustiers-Callian. An argumentative character, although holding that low justice, he tries "to several times to arrogate the corporal punishment, the punishment of offences relating to foreign herds, or even knowledge of cases of adultery". He came into conflict for rights of grazing with the prior of the rooms. He was sentenced personally for violence and name-calling, refusal to pay the trezain or debts yet. That will not prevent him to marry his daughter Yseude with Albert Blacas-Baudinard, ensuring his succession at the head of Aiguines.
The insightful baron: Boniface V to Catsellane
Boniface le Roux and his wife Brook, who left few traces in history, have had at least the merit to Castellane one of his most skilled barons: first humiliated by the Church, beaten by the County as had been his grandfather, Boniface V will have the courage to overcome his bitterness and intelligence to learn from its defeat. The balance of power are not favourable, without ever resorting to weapons, it will manage to maintain the prestige of the barony. And despite the political qualities of his opponent, not only déjouera the encirclement maneuver undertaken by it, but will be able to expand its sphere of influence.
We met him once, in 1211, when he participated in the "donation" granted by his father to the Church of Villecroze. He is married to a Lady of Galbert, probably the family which owns a part of the Valley of the Asse and, inter alia, the lordship of Gaubert which she wears the names. He married his second wife, the wealthy Agnès Spata, "dame partly Montpezat de Saint-etienne, Brunet, Riez, Roumoules, Saint-Laurent, Mezel, Germany, Quinson, Brauch, daughter and heiress of Spata or Spada, Lord of the same land."
His first wife was born said Boniface de Galbert, the name of his maternal family. It is to him that her father will give, in 1247, Castle Rock, but he will soon assign to his eager cadet. Of Boniface de Galbert are from Castellane of Salernes, Entrecasteaux, Grignan, Esparron, Fos, etc.
His second wife, Boniface V will have two other sons and three daughters:
- Boniface says riez, name him as the family of his mother, which he energetically claim the succession, even to the detriment of the rights of his father; his ambition will be finally the true heir to the Barony, but also his wrecker;
- Hugues said Baux, whose name, for e. Baratier, "remains enigmatic and suggests some alliance with this illustrious family": it may be not unrelated to the fact that the lordship of Tartonne, to which Boniface will pay tribute, as indeed that of Lambruisse (both in the current canton of Barrême), are land baussenque, and of Moriez will count, before the end of the centuryLeases of its Lords.
- Beatrix, who married Bertrand of Mévouillon, Lord of Mison and many other places;
- Aicarde, who married one of the sons of Romée de Villeneuve, Paul, Lord of Vence; It will have two wires which Boniface de Villeneuve-Vence, said de Castellane, which will accompany as Charles I of Anjou to conquer Naples;
- Sibille, who married Rostang de Trigance, Lord of Rougon").
The first County to break with Barcelona (1219)
With the short reign of Alphonse 11 (1196-1209), the union of the counts of Forcalquier and Provence nearly fail, Guillaume IV challenges-both in question the conventions of 1193. But the almost simultaneous death of son-in-law and father-in-law will ensure the meeting of the two counties into the hands of the son of Alphonse II, Raimond Bérenger V. The Government of that will be one of the most prolific has known the independent Provence. It starts in the worst difficulties: the County has five years to the death of his father. It has to tutor his uncle Pierre II, King of Aragon; While he rescues the count of Toulouse, head of the Albigeois, Pierre II was killed at the battle of Muret (1213), which marks the end of the Catalan intervention beyond the Pyrenees.
While Raimond Bérenger is kept in Aragon, a new suitor, Guillaume de Sabran, nephew of Guillaume IV, claims the County of Forcalquier and takes the title of Guillaume V, while anarchy settled in Provence. But infuriated by a semi-captivity, the young count escapes, in 1216, with the help of some Provencal, and joined his mother, Garsende of Forcalquier, which he donated of his County of Forcalquier and then confirms this donation (1215) in the presence of Boniface de Castellane, Guillaume de Galbert said "Le Gros", and other great Haute-Provence. Having reached his majority in 1219 and his 15 years, Raimond Bérenger stands out now as effective County. Practically, it has now broken bridges with the County of Barcelona and established his permanent residence in Provence, most often in Aix, which became its capital.
Energetic and intelligent, the new County took firmly in hands the reins of the pou - see. By a happy compromise with Guillaume de Sabran (1220), it leaves to the title of count and the enjoyment of several seigneuries, but tightens its own rights on the County of Forcalquier. It group in its central Government some excellent advisers, to the first rank of which Romée de Villeneuve to that from 1234, it will entrust the entire administration.
Cities nearby and replicas
He met difficulties to reduce the resistance of the Lords and cities of Central and Eastern Provence. For twenty years, Sisteron, Manosque and a Consulate which, although aristocratic nature is said for the municipal freedoms at the expense of the Lords. Nice and Grasse had given the example (1150), their consulate having even received support of the Bishop, who owned only by weak clans rights originally the city, and the County that there was still only a theoretical suzerainty. Around 1220, while pursuing the organisation and centralized management, Raimond Bérenger will apply to reduce a too wide urban autonomy and recover willingly or force the rights and revenues of the consulates of Brignoles (1220), Tarascon (122 (i) and Grasse (1227) on the other hand, in order to weaken the power of Castellane, it promotes the establishment of new consulates in the high Verdon and Ubaye valleys;) Boniface V indeed holds the villages through relatives, while in the South, his uncle Blacas has the entire region of Aups and sharing with him the region of Salernes. "In this last seigneury, count Alphonse II hold serious corners before 1207 entrusting places Vérignon, Lagnes, Comps-le-Neuf and La Faye military orders".
To replicate, Boniface strengthens Villecroze, participating in the defence of Salernes by controlling the road leading there from the Northeast. The Abbey Saint Victor protests. The Pope asked the Bishops of Fréjus and Sandra to arbitrate the conflict (July 1223). The convention finally specifies rights of Castellane in the castrum: albergue or right of lodging, the Lord can come House homestay twice a year, in winter and in summer, with twenty horses. the cavalcade, old law feudal lifted soldiers into the community, converted to an annual payment in cash, amounts to ten books; When the Lord married his daughter, or even if it falls into captivity, the community must contribute to the dot or the ransom for a maximum amount of 300 under raimondins, etc. As the significant revenue of judicial activity, they will be shared equally between the Lord and the Abbey, with the exception of crimes of bloodshed, that reserves the Lord under the "parent empire" which it holds the privilege (may 1227). In other words, the Castellane can do pretty much what suits them provided that they do not impose the Priory.
County named Nice Velasquez his faithful Romée. It acquires for himself the seigneuries of Villeneuve and Cagnes. It ensures as carefully his fortune nelle person to the county administration: at the bottom of a testament (December 15, 1250) it can make his name the following titles: baron of Vence, Lord of Cagnes, Gréolières, La Garde, Saint-Jeannet, Thorenc, Andon, Coursegoules, Cipieres, Tournon, Le Castelet, Trigancels. He has two sons: Paul-Romee, who married Aicarde, daughter of Boniface V de Castellane; Pierre-Romee, who married Alsacie of Aiguines"'.
Cause of the 2nd war count Castellane (1227): Boniface rejects the annexation of the Rougon parish by the diocese of Riez
Events worsen and military operations occur: County opposed Tourtour bed Villecrozej, which causes the erection of the Tower Grimaud near a former place of settlement. They destroy St. Croix at midday. Quickly the County seized Aups and obliges its Lords, the blacas family to seek refuge in the northeastern tip of their possessions, in the castle of Seranon, at the gates of Castellane.
It also fought in the region of Riez. Guigues de Galbert, ally of Boniface V and relative of his first wife, trashing the areas that hold the men of Bishop Rostaing of Sabran. This is due to the damage on the lands of Riez and montagnac, in July 1227, Pope Grégoire IX will confirm to the Bishop, with the churches that mark the eastern boundary of his diocese, the possession of Riez, Germany, Esparron and Saint-Julien-le-Montagnier, all located in a manor which is exercised the ascendant of a Castellane. North of Barrême, Clumanc and Tartonne region is experiencing the same agitation. Boniface is fear attacks since he built the castles of Boades and Taulane to protect access of Castellane the Lèques pass. When it will have to pay tribute, in 1227, he will do among others for Tartonne, East, Thorame-high more. Gold soon these two places will be in the hands of the County since it will render them it, in 1235, but in him taking so Thorenc and Barrême.
Under the administration of the bailiff in Grasse
In Grasse, to 1221, the administration of the bailiff, appointed two years earlier by the County at the request of the Bishop, causes vigorous untangled. Real instigators of the protest, the nobles fighting the recall of their allies. Among the Lords who hear, the Caillan Moustiers and Entrevennes, and Boniface V de Castellane accompany several Lords of the Middle-Verdon region.
These time, probably in response to the devastation that made her undergo Boniface clans allies region of Riez, Bishop Rostaing of Sabran repels the eastern border of his diocese beyond the torrent of the Baou, and annex the entire Rougon parish. Or it, so far, fell within the diocese of Senez, where sits a faithful of Castellane. Boniface, coming to raise a calf nou castle on the peak overlooking the village, rejects this grabbing, weapons in hand. It follows a second count war, which we know the outcome: in the heart of the winter, in the month of January 1227, Boniface must go to laugh, "in the House of the Bishop" specifically, to pay tribute to Raimond Bérenger, not in the hands of the County itself, which has not deigned to move while there is no doubt in the region, but through the prelate. In next July, Pope Grégoire IX endorsed the integration of Rougon in the diocese of Riez: among the churches located in the boundary East of this diocese, the bubble mentions that of the casirum of Rougon, on the left bank of the Baou, then that one hundred twenty years earlier, Pascal II excluded it because it set this limit at the oppidum of Rougon, i.e. on the right bank of the torrent.
After the bubble of Pope Boniface V must, the same month, wipe a new our: returning from Digne, Raimond Bérenger requires that it accompanies to Grasse, at the head of the Lords, which his uncle Blacas of Aups, who had been linked with the nobles of the city, and directed him to attend in July 1227, the abandonment of the rights of this consulate for the benefit of his administration.
The following year, the County requires Blacas of Aups and his brother, Guillaume de Baudinard, to give to the "filled various rights to Montmeyan. And in 1237, he will once again Boniface in Grasse, as witness to the sale of its rights on the city and the territory of Antibes to Bertrand, Bishop of the diocese.
The first villages of Eoulx and Majastres
The tribute that Boniface V ready in 1227 a for us deserve to enumerate all the possessions of Castellane classifying them into four categories "':
- The seigneuries that are not directly part of the barony: the region of Riez: Germany, Esparron, Saint-Martin-de-Brômes, Le Castellet, Brunet, Rousset, Bezaudun, Saint-Pierre de Brauch and Montbrien (the latter two in the current municipality of La Verdière); South of the Verdon: Salernes, Villecroze, as well as an "honor" to Entrecasteaux, Guillaume de Cotignac held Boniface; These Lordships need to Raimond Bérenger two annual contributions: albergue and the cavalcade. the first is based on an ancient right of the Earl, who was House and covered homestay; We have seen the definition of the benefit to be provided Villecroze according to the agreement, in 1223, between Castellane, who still hold this privilege, and representatives of the Abbey of Saint-Victor. But more often at the beginning of the 13th century, this benefit in kind is converted into a financial tax based on the number of fires in the community. As for the cavalcade, it is the right count to lift military aid on communities, which must provide Knights armed with toe, partly equipped with Knights and infantry soldiers, according to a schedule determined by their importance and that will establish the statutes of the great bailliages of Fréjus, Digne and Sandra; the investigation ordered in 1232 by Charles I of Anjou show that then, most communities will will be free of this military obligation in preferring a financial imposition; already, in principle, the Lord does not keep for him the money collected for the cavalcade, but must reserve at maintenance of the knights who will serve the County. Villecroze convention limited the amount of the cavalcade to ten pounds, two Knights with their horses armed.
- The area of the actual Barony for which Boniface is obliged to provide the tribute: to Castellane even: the Roc, the castrum and the village; (he mentioned for the first time, is a new habitat installed on a spur, said the Baous du Coteau of the greenhouse, the wayside to commercial traffic leading Grasse - which has supplanted Vence - at Senez, worthy and beyond); then come Peyroules, La Garde, two Castillon, Eoulx, Boades, Taulanne, Brandis, Blieux, Chasteuil, Taloire, Châteauvieux, Robion and Hayloft (to the col of Antremons);
- Farther, the Lordships of Thorame-Haute, Barrême, Thorenc and Tartonne, that the Lords take Boniface, who they help and Council, except against the County;
- Finally, recently acquired the lordship of Courchons and half that of Majastres.
If the seigneuries that vassals take for Boniface V owe obligations County, communities that consolidate the barony itself don't know of another Lord that Boniface, and it still carries a domination without limit or control, in particular in the fields of justice and taxation.
Boniface received half of the seigneury of Majastres de Laugier de Pelafoll in Exchange for the castle of Castillon lower (for which the son of Laugier, Boniface de Pelafoll will tribute Boniface VI and his brother Hugues leases, in 1252, the day of the proclamation of the new statutes of Castellane). The primitive Castle should occupy, at the end from the 11th or early 12th century, the Summit of the Saint-Sauveur (alt.1 341 m) mountain in the southeast of the village we know; site was reinforced towards the second half of the 14th century, perhaps by Guy de Roumoules, paying tribute in 1309, or rather by Boniface de Roumoules, which did so in 1375. But farmers descended probably already live longer near their fields and their sheepfolds, and if the current village has nothing of medieval, the presence of a Dovecote suggests that a castle was probably near the sheepfold bordering the route départementale, and which seems to have been covered in low-slung Ridge Vault. The community has, in 1300, at least one big owner of hole-skins: Hugues Chaudon, that graze in winter in the Bailiwick of Saint-Maximin and Brignoles.
The ruin of a great design: the union of Provence and the States of Toulouse
Raimond Bérenger V showed that he did not hesitate to use force, and the main aristocratic families who, on the line of the bass and the Haute-Provence, if often demonstrated spirit of independence, need to recognize its sovereignty. This is the case of the old Blacas of Aups and his wife, Laure, daughter of Boniface III de Castellane and Adelais de Moustiers - by thus uncle and aunt of Boniface V - for which the weight of age adds to the political torments. They are obliged to exchange their Lordship of Seranon, who commands the road Grasse - Castellane - Digne, known to the military and economic interest, against the castles of modest importance of Fox, Amphoux, Tourtour, and 600 under Royal (1233). They must, in addition, assign their rights on Comps and Puimoisson the Hospitallers who in 1238, after the death of Blacas, will require yet Laure and his sons, a grazing right Aups, Fabrègues, Moissac, Tourtour, Fox Amphoux.
In the Galbert, which is the first wife of Boniface V: in 1233, the County confiscated Guigonnet property it owns in Mezel, Beynes and Bras D'asse, and give the latter, 1241, the bailli of Aix, Perisso.
But first is the power of Castellane he seeks to reduce. To this end, after confirmed the exemptions granted in Seyne-les-Alpes, in 1203, by his father Alphonse II, then founded the Consulate of Selonnet in 1228, that of Barcelonnette in 1232, it creates 5 December 1233 consulates in Allos, Colmars and Beauvezer. With "therefore the right to elect and to establish the consuls deemed necessary, depending on the time and circumstances", these northern consulates exempt communities in seigneurial power, and devote their emancipation. They provide the most authority to the limit of the zone of influence of Boniface v. Of it, Ramon Berenguer requires also the castles of Thorenc and Barrême (1235), other key positions along the Grasse - Castellane - Digne, and he renders in Exchange castles, much less strategic interest, Thorame-high and Tartonne, that it took him a few years ago.
Through the mediation of the young King of France Louis IX (future Saint Louis), Raimond Bérenger ruled Provence the count of Toulouse Raymond VII, son of Raimond VI already stripped by the previous King of France Louis VIII, at the end of the atrocious war of the Albigenses (1229), half of its States, from Avignon to the Bas-Languedoc, but Marseille recognized as Overlord. The papacy had triggered this conllit to exterminate the Cathar heresy, but its champions, the french barons first, then the King of France himself, led an authentic imperialist war against the count of Toulouse. The Albigensian crusade in some respects, resembles a war of Secession in which Northern crushes the Midi. But what it has said, the Provence - with the exception of Marseille - has hardly demonstrated solidarity with Toulouse and Languedoc. Some Provençal prelates, including the Archbishop of Aix, inspired by a concern for pastoral renewal and intransigence against heresy, instead deployed many zealous against them. Bishop of Riez, Hugues (born perhaps at Moustiers; died in 1223), shared the activity of a legation 1209 to 1213, with representatives of the Holy See, which, at the Council of Montpellier (1211), has left the County of Toulouse on the other issue that combating armed, and whose ardor and manoeuvres even overflowed the wishes of the Pope. After recalling his legates to more moderation, Innocent III finally endorsed the provisions which they had taken, at the expense of Raimond VII34.
French mediation has another consequence for the Provence: the daughter of Raimond Bérenger and Beatrice of Savoy, Marguerite, wife Louis IX himself (1234). This alliance is the work of Blanche of Castile who, having previously married Alphonse of Poitiers, one of his three sons, with the heiress of the County of Toulouse, had already been to the Capetians reaching a milestone in the investment of the Midi.
The King of Aragon, James I, then fears an extension of the right-of-way of the King of France on the Mediterranean regions. To oppose, he tries to encourage the formation of a block of States of Toulouse and of Provence by the reconciliation of the two counties. He plans to seal this agreement by marrying, despite their age difference, Raymond VII of Toulouse with Beatrice, fourth daughter and heiress of Raymond Berengar V of Provence. But the premature death of the latter - there no 40 years - ruin this great design. Helped by Pope Innocent IV, Blanche of Castile, mother of the King of France and of Alphonse de Poitiers, will be married to Beatrice his third son, Charles of Anjou, who will be so to the head of Provence, of Anjou and Maine.
Genesis of a regional State of modern style
To put an end to the fragmentation of political power, scattered between multiple places of powers, to assert the authority of the Government as a main governing body, and its sovereignty, Raimond Bérenger has set up an administration that already gives the country figure of a State organized manner more consistent with the needs, nor of some, but of the whole of the population. Therefore, it structure in great bailliages Provence, covering all the Lordships included within their boundaries, large but not artificial. The Statute of Fréjus-Draguignan, Sisteron, Digne and Senez, promulgated respectively in 1235, in 1237 and, the last two, in 1238, in principle regulate the respective rights County, the Lords and the communities, especially justice, military obligations and fees payable to the County: cavalcade, queste, etc. In each Bailiwick, a senior became the place of the common law. Acting by delegation, it reinstalls the public authority. Such an organization reflects the rise of the central Government. She initiated the establishment of a modern State, at the expense of the society feudal, represented by the nobles to whom it seeks to resume all political power to moult into simple State owners. Forced to swear the statutes, they recognize themselves vassals of the count ("vassali and")
faithful domini comitis"):
- The Bailiwick of Fréjus-Draguignan (established in 1235) roughly matches the four current districts of Brignoles and Draguignan, Grasse and Nice. In the region of the Middle Verdon, it includes among other Aiguines and halls, (combined in a single castrum, which must provide the cavalcade a miles with his horse), Ampus, Aups, Bargème, Comps, Esclapon, as well as the communities of La Garde and, to the South, from Salernes, Villecroze and Entrecastaux for which Boniface V loaned tribute eight years earlier, but where the County claimed rights. On the other hand they mention Trigance nor Châteauvieux, remaining in the orbit of Castellane. Among the signatories of the Statute, Aiguines (Lord of Gréolières), Guillaume de Moustiers Bertrand (Lord of Caillan), Blacas of Aups.
- The Bailiwick of Digne (established in 1238) is the current Borough of Digne, minus the townships of La Javie and Seyne. It includes among other Châteauneuf-les-Moustiers, Entrevennes, Gaubert, Levens, Majastres, Montagnac, Moustiers, the Palud, Riez, Rougon, Roumoules, Saint-Jars, but also Germany, Le Castellet, Brunet, Esparron, Saint-Martin-de-Brômes, communities for which Boniface had lent tribute. Among the noble signatories, Raymond de Moustiers (Lord part of Moustiers), Guillaume de Moustiers (Lord of Espinouse), Bertrand's rooms.
In this text, the Palud and Rougon form a unique and mome castrum (in the singular) and must provide together in a cavalcade milites with his horse and another with no horse. This entity includes, in fact, the southern part of the great ancient Lordship of Châteauneuf and the Rougon high, two booty of Alphonse I at the expense of Boniface III, annexed comtal domain as early as 1189. This means that the lordship of Rougon itself remained in the sphere of Castellane.
When count Robert will purchase the part that the warlords still hold in the Consulate of Moustiers 127 March 13131 will represent more than the eighth of the castrum; employment again of the word castrum results, in all likelihood, precisely from the installation of the secondary Bailiwick. It is because no feudal influence cannot longer do screen count administration that the city obtained will seat payment of 200 pounds coronats, preferably in Riez whose population is still growing: 550 families taxable. But the city knows, it also, real significance: in 1315, there will be 500 families taxable to the General queste, against 500 ega entry in Draguignan, 330 in Digne, 202 in Castellane, 150 to Blieux, 121 to Saint Jurs, 80 to Aiguines, 54 in Rougon, 52 in Trigance, and others. Like that of Digne, Senez Bailiwick date 1238; Féraud de Thorame and Raimond Féraud of go, including, in signed articles. It includes, besides Tartonne and Thorame Lordships where the County has retained rights, although that there them data has Boniface in compensation of Barrême and Thorenc him made it - various community tees of the current Canton of Barrême, Saint André and Colmars with, among others, Chaudon, Clumanc, Lambruisse, Moriez, La Mure, Piégut, Saint André, would, Thorame-Basse. In other words, Raimond Berenger - which requires, in the Valley of Senez, possession of the Hill of Puy-Saint Pons, and leaves to the Bishop, in Exchange, Château-Vieux and the Roche de Castellet - account have control throughout the territory situated to the North West of the Verdon, juice to pass of leaves, with the sole exception of the villages falling directly within the barony '
Actually the Castellane felt their influence well beyond it. If the Bailiwick of Senez is intended to curb their ambitions, the sequence of events, fifteen years later, will show its relative ineffectiveness. Nonetheless, this systematic organisation of the territory corresponds well a the establishment of responsible government organs.
Succeeding the first line of the counts of Provence, from the Provençal burgondo Guillaume the liberator, the Catalan counts of Provence have left a remar art work. After the period of disintegration of the power and the apogee of feudalism, their avene ment 1113 had opened a new era. At the end of the 11th century, Alphonse I had laid the foundations for a central administration, representative tee locally by State officials.
They are nonetheless Alphonse II and especially Raimond Berenger V who made Provence a real regional State. Now, has within its borders, the unification is realized and recognized the sovereignty of the County.
The comtal field him even if rounds following confiscation of rebel seigneuries. Clerics and legal professionals ensure the direction of affairs and finance; a Council, Romée de Villeneuve dominated since 1234, helps the County determined its policy, organized justice, governs the administration and the army. The administrative organization of the Provence results in the concentration of power. After having suffered defeats and humiliations, Boniface V de Castellane has the merit to take note of the decline of the feudal society, the end of an era, and the consequences to extend its influence: the dream in arms of an independent Barony which was of his ancestors and that will resume his son for his misfortune - he has substituted the matie diplorealistic negotiation, the alliance with Romée de Villeneuve, the compromise with institutions that will be evolving and developing until the 16th century.
The renewal occurs also in the economic field. Trade flows revive, as the traffic in the Mediterranean, that foster the Crusades. It follows a profound urban transformation in the lower Rhone Valley: Arles, Avignon, Orange grow; a new city, Saint Gilles, has popped up on the right bank of the Petit Rhône, and under the impetus of the Italian merchants, in a few years became the busiest commercial port in the region.
AIX seems at this time still hold only a relatively secondary position. In contrast, Marseille extends its quarter of the trading on the north shore of the Vieux Port. Relations narrow with the city of Genoa which seeks to monopolize economic currents of the coast ligure - Nice establishes a city of business between the port and the Paillon, and Grasse became an important commercial center that the Séranon links to Castellane and the Haute Provence. Flourishing agricultural markets, Forcalquier, Sisteron, Manosque and Pertuis are booming demo-graphics and commercial.
In these cities and around them, money royalty override gradually to in-kind services and chores, the small property pro multiplies, the bourgeois acquire portions of land that they work by farmers or tenants; new social categories appear as, a medium that is because more and more of the rural world of the Lords and serfs.
Boniface VI de Castellane
In competition with his father for inheritance of Riez (1246), with his older brother for the chateau de Castellane (1247)
Four girls he had Beatrice of Savoy, the comte de Provence Raimond Berenger V has married and the first three: Marguerite with Louis IX, King of France and future Saint Louis, Eleanor with Henri III, King of England, Sanchia with his brother, Richard of Cornwall. Six months after his death, his fourth daughter, Beatrice, married Charles, brother of the King of France, and brings him the County of Provence, while on his side, the King of France invests the young count of Anjou and Maine. Practicing an energetic and authoritarian policy, Charles of Anjou intends immediately to recognize his supremacy, and even more than his father-in-law, impose his suzerainty even with a new firmness to the largest.
This year 1246, Riez, Canon Augier sells to the Bishop Fulk of quail ' his rights on the Episcopal city and the lordship of Brunet. He came to collect the usufruct to the death of Agnès Spata, which he is son of a stepchild. As the second husband of Agnes, Boniface V, Lord of Castellane, immediately opposed to this assignment. His younger son, Bonifitce of Riez, the contests with more virulence, as a brother of Canon Augier, similarly a year after, it challenges without more than evicted the decision of his father, who gave the castle of the rock to his elder brother, Boniface of curve.
During all the time that the new Earl, who accompanied his brother Louis IX in the 7th crusade, is prisoner in Egypt, Villeneuve Romée, former Prime Minister of Raimond Bérenger V, retains the Provencal Affairs Directorate. As such, it presents the castle of La Verdière (today canton of Rians) Boniface V de Castellane, in compensation for the land of Riez which had been promised to him but on which his son, Boniface de Riez, succeeded on an interim basis to get their hands. A condition however: do not deliver this castle or, precisely, Boniface de Riez, or even Boniface de Galbert. Of this Act are three strokes, the last two to mark the upcoming years:
- The confidence which Boniface de Castellane enjoys with Romée de Villeneuve, whose one of the sons, Paul, also married his daughter;
- Suspicion, instead, in which the Court count wishes, from this time on, his son Boniface de Riez and Boniface de Galbert;
- Boniface de Riez ambition that has no more qualms about walking on the broken from his father, in the case of the legacy of Riez, that he hesitated to compete with his elder brother, finally forced to cede the Castellane castle that their father had given to him. Assignment as the count, clans practice, will often seem to challenge.
Sibille of Trets, Lady of Toulon, and cousin of the Aups Blacas married the Lord Boniface de Castellane and Riez
On the death of Boniface V de Castellane 1252, his younger brother and successor son translated ambition by taking the title of "dominas Bonijacius Castellana and Regio". The same year, returning from Egypt, Charles of Anjou dislocates the League led by a Barrai of Baux, who has the nostalgia of the first place held once by his family in Provence politics. This League was the consulates of Arles, Avignon, and the independent municipality of Marseille. After the reddi lion of Arles and Avignon, the opportunistic rapid Barrai rallied to the strongest. And as Marseille does not leave as intimidated by a demonstration of troops under its walls on 23 April, he tries to mediate. In vain. It ready then tribute to Aix 22 November, giving token of his sincerity, inter alia, Sibille, Lady of Trets, and Boniface of Riez, new Lord of Castellane. Which will get married less than a year later, while continuing to pay attention to the situation of Marseille, still resisting despite its isolation. From one of the branches of the Viscounts of Marseille and widow since 1243 of Gilbert of Baux, Lord of Aubagne and brother of Barrai, Sibille is daughter and heiress of fire Gaufridet, Lord of Trets and Toulon, Cuers, Le Revest and part of Solliès. She mother Guillemette de Blacas, sister of Blacas of Aups and so beautiful sister Laure, she even daughter of Boniface III de Castellane.
Seizing the opportunity offered to him by the death of Boniface V, the County breaks the provisional agreement between him and Villeneuve Romée, and resumed the Verdière and neighbouring territories. Then, 28 July 1252, it convenes in Aix Boniface VI of Castellane and Boniface of Galbert brothers to be witnesses of the compromise which, finally, concludes the long resistance of Marseille. The Treaty provides three information:
- Marseille must acknowledge the count overlordship, consent to the installation of a judge and a bailiff, but retain their free administration and many privileges of autonomy;
- In dealing with the two brothers on the same footing, the County reminds somehow to the he then was that, if he is the de facto power to Castellane, central administration recognizes always groin to claim;
- Castellane continue to follow consistently the Affairs of the municipality of Marseille.
Moreover they withdrew immediately on their lands, without paying tribute following October 8, Boniface de Castellane and his wife Sibille de Trets confirm the privileges and freedoms of the inhabitants of Toulon.
Ten years earlier (1242), in the presence notably Burgondion of Trets, Viscount of Marseille, Sibille gave his cousins Bertrand has Boniface de Blacas, half of the seigneury of Aups in Exchange one-quarter of the Aups, Moissac, Fabrègues grazing rights and Vérignon, that it intended to keep until the extinction of a debt of 9,000 slot, balance of the dowry of his mother died eight years before. 1 November 1258, by Act passed at the castle of le Revest, Boniface de Blacas, Lord of Aups, recognizes the possession of half of half of Aups, that they will hold both in undivided co‑ownership (the other half of the seigneury belonging to the count).
As Boniface VI, continuing a look actively in the political life of Marseilles, he participated in December 1256, in the settlement of old dispute between Barrai of leases and the municipality.
The zone of influence of Castellane
Picking up the procedure and policy chicane which had so well to his grandfather Philippe Auguste in the Kingdom of France, Charles of Anjou first uses pressure economic and tax to the cities step frondeuses and aristocratic families. While he accompanied his brother on the crusade, he did prepare a national survey based on the principle that everything belongs to the field corner tai, only exceptions privileges and disposals which recipients can authenticate the origin showing off the original Charter by his administration. From 1252, it sends across the country prelates and lawyers proceed with full enumeration of rights and revenues for the public domain.
Careful, its officials dare not go investigate in 50 communities means Verdon and the region would be; many of them are not yet part of the barony.
Not only all the villages will not save the same demographic, but some, for a variety of causes, change of place: after the economic and political crisis of the end of the XIV and the beginning of the 15th century, the castrum of Bagarry will be completely desert. repopulated in the second half of the 16th century, its new inhabitants will move more than 2 km from the medieval hill, and the new village will be rightly called Le Bourguet; the Bastide of Suns shall abandon his Church and houses at the foot of the rock dominating the ravine from the mild to settle, share and other road Comps-Pont de Soleils - Castellane, and become the hamlet of Suns, in the village of Trigance. Some villages fade even over the centuries, such Levens who, after having counted 169 inhabitants in 1765, is administratively attached to Majastres since about fifty years, and whose ruins have virtually disappeared, with the exception of those of the Saint Barnabe Church and the enclosure of the cemetery.
Ultimately, at the time where the Castellane could appear weakened, in particular by releasing over the decades of their kinship with the Feraud and the Glandèves, the behavior of the Capetian led paradoxically to demonstrate the strengthening of their area of influence, as well in the Valley of the Verdon between Barrême and Moustiers, that is to say the strength of their current strength. But Boniface V is no longer to see recognized implicitly the happy results of its policy, and Boniface VI will not learn lesson from the skill of his father.
The benefits that bring to the people the articles called "laws and customs" 1252
Upon accession to the head of the Barony, Boniface VI grants to the community of new statutes Castellane, so-called "Laws and customs" (July 11, 1252). Among the oldest historical presentations of the event, that of the prior Joseph Laurensi (1775) is based on an extract that the Trustees had made record in 1315 by the Barcelona administration of Castellane, document today disappeared, and j.-p.. Papon, after a year, on a Charter then preserved in the archives of the County, in Aix, then to the archives of Bouches (side B 347), but she also found maintenant.17... East - this Boniface V who prepared this Charter of franchises? In any case, by the enacting upon accession to the head of the Barony, his son says his own authority and ensures the loyalty of his vassals and the population. To solemnize this proclamation "in platea Burgi Castellanae ante dom us quondam Aloisiae Cordonniero", it the countersignature of the Knights Cordel de Roumoules, Elisabeth de Châteauvieux, Graila, Bragalone, Fougues Newfoundland and Bertrand Guillaume. He needs however to the official consent of his brother Boniface de Galbert.
The "laws and customs" are divided into three chapters: offences and penalties, services and taxes, privileges and have inter alia that each can now buy, sell and test freely; take pledge for thing lent; continue its creditors, even the people of the Lord, without asking him any permission; leave the country and settle elsewhere taking all his possessions; prohibit the bailiffs, judges and other officers of the Court of justice, to the Knights and guards of the Lord to enter in the vineyards and other private properties. The Knights are promoted to Lords, and the bourgeois to the rank of Knights: milites them will have the same rights as have the domini on their men, and burgenses, the same rights as the military on their homines.
We have that rare information on the composition of the population at this time but ninety years later, the community will propose to count administration to pay additional rights against various benefits, including that of equality of three social groups - except obviously the nobles and clerics - it entails, and therefore class of serfs emancipation. Following this approach, the great senechal will send a Commissioner question notable. Studying the request and the minutes of the investigation, R. Aubenas describes each of these three social groups' ':
- Free commoners (indeed, the sense of "franci, liberi homines" gave rise to not always concordant inter¬pretations), are the most numerous, they pay no royalties to the central administration, likely due exceptional privilege to the promotion of the burgenses to the rank of milites granted by these new statutes.
- "Men of markets"; their condition, to the nearby origins of serfdom, was very improved by the articles which, in their regard, abolished in particular the servitude of the mortmain, the Lord now merely a fee of twelve Denarii per head and per year. Only this tax still separates them from themselves freemen, with which they are treated. his payment to the employee of the Royal Court is made on 21 July, feast of Saint-Victor, and no doubt market day. It is perhaps this circumstance that this social category takes its name. At least it is not composed d ' foreigners settled in Castellane to practice their trade, twelve funds representing the annual price of their right of residence. "
- The malservi, whose name is entered in a special register; These serfs did not have the right to leave their land, for which they nevertheless pay a royalty of two cents, not to mention other chores to which they are bound, as many tenants not serfs. Of course they are subject to the feudal law of the mortmain: when one of them dies without leaving any legitimate child, his modest possessions returned to the Lord, even if he has brothers or other relatives. Nothing is said of the legal conditions of their marriage, but one can think that, had they been forced to buy the seigneurial consent to marry outside the seigneury, the query, which emphasizes their failure has pay whatever it is, would not lack pointed out. Despite their deeply miserable condition, these families will still be number 20 in the middle of the 14th century.
Although the community had proposed to pay an additional tax, its application will be heard, in fact, that at that time, thus broadening the rights of the people, the pat granted statutes Boniface VI constitute an important civic and social progress. If the promotion of fifteen Knights should not be allowed to cause profound changes in the daily life of the city, however the bourgeois made them the real beneficiaries: who will best take advantage of the new now available means, if this is, indeed, those who already own the most property? Others will hardly have the ability to enjoy, and the serfs are not even freed. Yet these rights conferred to notables remain in the economic domain more than of politics: about public affairs and the life of the community, the prince cannot nothing rule without the consent and the authority of the nobles and notables. They will no doubt be consulted individually to give a personal opinion, but not collectively, as a separate category, since no Legislative Council is established.
As for the consideration provided for the benefit of the Lord, it is not negligible: "every house where he became the fire will be required to provide an armed man who will be at his expense and who will go after the prince when it will go to war". In other words, Boniface, who urge the decisive struggle approach, ensures the option of having recourse to a general mobilization of men able to bear arms.
The Capetian expansion on the shores of the Mediterranean
While respecting the person of Charles I of Anjou - who also left the Provence suitable months submission of Marseille and not return that in 1257 - Boniface VI intrigues against the representatives of the County. Mother-in-law at a time two brothers, the King of France Louis IX and Charles of Anjou, frustrated by the second some rights and Lordships which her husband Raimond Bérenger V had bequeathed, the Countess Dowager Beatrice of Savoy request aprement. With his support, the Lord of Castellane intrigues against the Angevin, which embodies in his eyes the intruder, foreign oppressor. The representatives of it he confiscates Quinson and La Verdière. King Louis IX attempts to resolve difficulties between Beatrice and Charles. At the same time, in an arbitral award of November 1256, he directs his brother to deliver any offense to the Lord of Castellane and behave towards him in good and loyal Overlord (November 6, 1256). Most administration immediately renders the two seigneuries.
By the agreement it concludes with his son-in-law Charles I, the Dowager Countess disclaims any sovereignty on the County of Forcalquier and its various claims in Provence, with an annuity of £ 6,000 tournaments. The first consequence of this Covenant is the dislocation of the forces hostile to the administration and to the methods of Government introduced by the Capetian opposition which, so far, included around Beatrice of Savoy. One of his top advisors, the Bishop of Sisteron Humbert Fallavel, is replaced at the head of the bishopric by Alain de Luzarches, Paris original, trusted by Charles. The County of Forcalquier is permanently attached to the count field.
Marseille elections brought to power the supporters of independence. Not for long: the inhabitants are quickly forced to sign a Treaty (June 1257) by which they renounce their common and, recognizing this time the suzerainty of the Anjevin, no, it is true, as count of Provence but as Lord of their city! In fact, they have lost their political independence... Boniface de Castellane followed closely the events but does not seem to have taken active part. In any case, Charles the press to join him in Saint-Rémy, always in the company of Boniface de Galbert. The two brothers are obliged to counter-sign as witnesses, the transaction whereby the Bishop assigns jurisdiction over the upper town to the County, which thus becomes Lord of Marseille (August 1257).
Anxious to contain the influence of Castellane in Haute-Provence, Charles I undertook, during this summer 1257, a touillee which leads his Chateau de Brignoles in Riez, where it ensures sense of Bishop Foulques of quail, which the competition it is particularly useful to Digne which he give the coseigneurie by the Bishop, and to Apt where, taking advantage of the misunderstanding between bourgeois and KnightsIt takes to the consuls their rights and revenues. In October, through his representative André de Mer
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
- Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
- Consequences of the wars of religion
- Taxes, debt and economic ruin
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge