1 week in the Gorges du Verdon= 2 campsites to discover the richness of this incredible site
Find out more
Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
The peasant, free, owner of the land on which he works, but hit heavy royalty
The ruin and the depopulation of Provencal villages have changed the mentality of farmers even before the end of the wars internecine (1400). A half century of disorder, famine and terror have awakened minds, aroused by new aspirations. Before the huge barren expanses, once Foundation of wealth and the power of the Lord, those who survived with great difficulty to so many events realize more or less the true value of their work: it is they more than the Earth, producing and creating wealth... They start to regain ground buried under wood and brush, to reconstruct the herd, but at the same time challenge the possession or use of the forests, pastures and Earth Gäste. If well that from the beginning of the 15th century, everywhere serfdom gave way to a new form of subservience, very relaxed: the peasant owes more to his Lord neither his body nor his property, but only an important part of his work and earnings.
To remedy the lack of arms, the Lords have installed on their land of hundreds of families from other regions, and even Italy, which constituted a category of free settlers. The merger of these free emigrants and former freed serfs created a free-living population, which eventually dominate clans campaigns before the end of the 15th century. It is more related to the Lords, which it remains vassal, by contracts of various forms. As early as the 14th century, the Lords began to loosen Earth Gandhi of the plots they yield in emphyteusis. Subject to the payment of a sum of money, the tasque annual payment and certain commitments, the beneficiary of Celtic peul concession close lands to him conceded, deny access, plant trees, build sometimes barns and sheepfolds, but the Lord remains owner of funds.
Having the disadvantage of change the character of the land Gäste granted by making a good parallel a demi-privee property, the lease however has the great advantage to establish more stability clans cultures and encourage the maintenance of good land. It therefore appears as a lease in the long term, which leaves to the Lord the nominal ownership of land, but removes it all rights to the benefit of the farmers working the land. They have the real property, can sell it, give it, transmit it, provided that the commitments entered into.
The tasque and other taxes
These commitments include the tasque, annual annuity payable at Easter or St. Michael, but personal benefits or chores also: plow, sowing, faucher land of the Lord, prune his vines, carry his fever, its cuts of wood, repair his farm buildings. There are size and any kind of fees paid in crop or food: depending on the case, the Lord gets half, quarter, eighth of harvested products.
Finally the Lords hit the populations of rights that they have invented over the years and who more often have their raison d'etre that clans the abuse of force: entitlements on the bakery, on the sale of wine, on the depaissance, weights and measures, on the display of the goods to the market. We already know the albergue, right of the Lord take cottage among his vassals and his peasants when it passes through their lands. The pulverage is a fee paid by the shepherds which the herds pass on ancestral lands.
Found e.g. listed ion these rights in an old book of reason: not only, Meyreste, gastes land ownership belongs to the Lord, and so-therefore "all wood and all the sources and the escoulements of the waters", not only sei-gneuri• "is founded in high, medium, low and mixed jurisdiction and Empire", but also "in any sort of seigneurial rights as fines", lods and trezains, sentences municipal, rights of Leiden, toll, passage and pulverage, forage and milling, supposed, tasques and services, especially to inform".
To these charges, to which the Lord required rural populations, it should be added, on the one hand, taxes collected directly by the tax authorities of the count of Provence, including General queste, secondly, tithing on many agricultural products: lambs, crops, etc., collects the clergy. It has this effect of "decimation" who of mission is to browse the areas at the time of the hype or fulling, and take the tithe. No one has the right to remove wheat from the area before the passage of the decimateur. It is the same for wine.
The peasant at the mercy...
Feudal charges and various taxes reduce already meagre income. The farmer is at the mercy of the elements and events. Excessive rains, a prolonged drought, the passage of people from war or an incursion by road and, immediately, it's misery and famine. Crops, in normal times, are barely sufficient, because yields are mediocre. How could it be otherwise? Agricultural equipment is that have sent the Romans: the spade, hoe, plough to soc more often in wood and iron, the sickle more readily usable than the scythe in uneven and stony terrains. Culture processes have not been significantly improved: the use of manure is very low, even around large urban agglomerations such as Arles or Marseille. Wheat foulaison is trampling of beasts and not to roll. Roads, except what remained of Roman roads, are many, but few passable how: public roads, are talking about texts, are for most of the passages on the edge of the fields, the present and sometimes just tracks. The transport are usually on back of animals, donkeys and mules, or on the back of men.
Despite the courage of men, the abandonment by the Lords of a portion of the ground thanks to the emphyteutic and attractiveness that can exert on foreign farmers use of pastures and Woods, the restocking is done slowly. In the last decades of the 15th century, the towns and villages in the region have not yet recovered half (except Demandolx de La Palud) often a quarter of their population.
Economy: livestock, crops and trade
As it takes less time to restore livestock to regain walking foot cropland, livestock occupies a predominant place. It was calculated that, in the pre-Alps of Provence, every family who survived, has in 1471 from one to two "trenteniers" of sheep. After this date, the livestock will intensify again, causing a race to pastures and strife between the owners of herds. According to accounts 1189-1506, Moustiers hiyam, the Royal Court of the viguerie condemns Louis de Grasse, Lord of Mas (viguerie of Grasse) and Barthélemy de Grasse, Lord of Bormes (viguerie of Hyères) to arming a troupe of ill repute people and have, at their head, taken despite the efforts of the shepherds, herds which grazed near Blieux and Carcès.
At the end of the 15th century, Pierre de Sabran, Lord of Aiguines and Baudinard, is still a minor under the tutelage of his mother Yolande of Saint - Marcel. The consuls and inhabitants of Moustiers benefit to graze their animals on the terroir of Aiguines bordering the Verdon, cut wood and gather acorns, alleging a privilege held by letters of King René. However, according to custom, the Lord of Aiguines, absolute master of its pastures, can only grant foreigners the right to graze. It therefore sends on-site his bailiff and some tribunals. Seeing them, the shepherds withdrew strongly on the territory of Moustiers, where they can be seized. Then arrive the Trustees of this city and the notary, accompanied by a few armed individuals who, under the pretext of repair the bridge begin to break trees and act as if they were owners of the pastures of Aiguines. Pierre de Sabran uses to King René himself, noting that, during the lifetime of his father, never the consuls of Moustiers would have dared an act as arrogant. King René ordered them from "appear to its Board to produce the letters they claim to hold him, letters which allow them to despaitre in the terroir of Aiguines, and to declare that the said letters are surreptitious, null and of no effect and value".
Vines and merchants
The vine will spread again, even in valleys where it exists today; However, in Castellane, who produced that just for three months of wheat, the country lost in 1471 almost all its vineyards. Cereals, almonds, hazelnuts, although less abundant than in Basse-Provence, constitute significant resources. If the culture and work of hemp feeds them weaves domestic, as evidenced in La Palud toponym "The Val de Nay", the quality of the sheet remains rough.
Merchants in small towns make connections between high and low-Provence, but also with merchants and individuals from the remote villages of 30 or 40 miles. The case of Jean Barrai, notary and merchant of Riez around 1420, is typical. This trader trades as well with Seyne-les-Alpes, where he exchanged wine compared to cereals, with the port of Frejus, where it exports of wheat. In addition, it has two shops, one where it sells consumer products, the other reserved for cloth linen parts purchased in Avignon or the fairs of Languedoc, and sold at retail. With the Bishop of Riez and the Commander of the Hospital of Puimoisson, its biggest customers are the various Lords of the neighbourhood and the merchants of Riez, Valensole and Moustiers.
We already know the toll tariff at pont de Castellane in the year 1432-33 for goods in transit or sold in the shops in the city, according to the role of the services received by the Simon Petit vice-clavaire to noble Cortcol Duplessis, Lord of la Roche.
Lack of document, it is not possible to establish for each village the time of recovery. We saw why Le Bourguet has three families in 1471: two brothers settled around 1460 at the request of the Lord of Andon, and then a third family is aggregated there; This is the origin of the renaissance of the village of Bagarry and the change of its location: it will group 25 houses in 1540. Trigance which 52 inhabited houses in 1315, fell to 20 houses in 1471, will rise to 80 houses in 1540; Majastres and Les Salles, which amounted to 22 and 40 in 1315 and are uninhabited in 1471, will have 16 and 20 in 1540. Levens and Taulanne, that comp-were 24 and 20 in 1315, also are inhabi-tes in 1540 and will remain so until the 17TH - 18th century. Conversely, Robion, which included 7 inhabited houses in 1315 and account 11 in 1471, will be 38 in 1540. Although the figures for the other villages of the region are not known, it is estimated that when the County of Provence will be joined to always to the Kingdom of France, the changing economic and demographic of the gorges of the Verdon region knows, after a depressive low still very marked in 1471, a more or less rapid rise as figures of 1540.
Both Lord Eoulx and Estelle, Jean de Raymond rebuilt the Château de Trigance early 15th century
Military leader came from Italy in the service of Queen Jeanne, Jean I de Raymond, said Gros, received it a share of the seigneury of Eoulx (1381), that his family will expand and will remain until the Revolution. More than ten years later, he bought at Perrotin's dull, expelled by Marie de Blois, Guy and Briançonnet (canton of Saint-Auban, Alpes-Maritimes). And then he also acquired Fouquet IV de Pontevès, part of d'Entrecasteaux (1405).
It is not the only Raymond at the head of Eoulx: if he paid homage in 1386, a Raymond Alban did turn in 1413 while itself still lives. This Raymond Alban Exchange (1435) the part of d'Entrecasteaux acquired by Jean de Raymond against part of Eoulx owned by Refforciat de Castellane. This Exchange proves the close relationship of Jean I - and Alban, perhaps the second is the eldest son of the first, which would have given him a part of his rights. In this case, the son died prematurely, because it is Pierre de Raymond and not Alban to succeed their father.
"Jean I" Raymond, said the wholesale is also major Lord of Trigance, land that has previously experienced owners very various, inter alia:
- The widow of Arbert de Lançon, strain of Pontevès, and Arbaud, grandson of one of the two founders of Petra Castellana;
- The one and the other have given their part in Saint-Victor de Marseille, the first in 1037, the second in 1056.
At the beginning of the 11th century, after having shaved atop Biach primitive Castle, a Lord stood one another, stronger, more comfortable and easier access to the tip of a spur overlooking the left bank of the Jabron; his widow, corn, overwhelmed by debts, planned to sell the new castle to Boniface V de Castellane, father of stepdaughter Sibille, when the intervention of the Comps hospital allowed him to keep (1247).
In the middle of the 14th century (1355), there was also a Lord (or coseigneur) named Guillaume Dauphin or Delphin.
It is in no doubt reusing part of the novel work (rest of logis, underground rooms, tanks), at the beginning of the 15th century, Jean I de Raymond built a more powerful Castle: a quadrangular enclosure flanked on the corners of talutees round towers, of which three survive.
Under the leadership of John I
At the same time, John I seem to treat residents with any respect: in 1440, he donated some of his vassals, dont justement à François Dauphin, ou Delphin, descendant d' une vieille famille de coseigneurs, et à Lions Aycard, Rouvier, etc, en reconnaissance de nombreux services et de l' hommage par eux prêté de la terre gaste which precisely François Dauphin, or Delphin, descendant of an old family of co-seigneurs, and Lions Aycard, Rouvier, etc., in recognition of many services and the tribute they loaned Earth Gäste. Four years later, it passes a transaction with the community of place, represented by Jacques Antelme, Jean Trouin, Étienne Rouvier, his prosecutors, Jean de Bagarris, Lord said Bagarry. The Act, which deals with the right of "cabestrage", specify that the community can continue to use foreign cattle to the trebbiatura of the grain, without paying any royalties to the Lord, but that every inhabitant is required to pay four wholesale to it, each year at Halloween. The transaction will be concluded clans Street, before the House of Jacques Lions, in the presence of Bertrand de Requiston, coseigneur of Ampus, Bertrand Alaric, vicar of Trigance, Jacques Michaelis, notary in Castellane. In the middle of the X century, it delivers receipt for the arrears of the cl right ' albergue and cavalcade, scrubber of the community. The Act is passed in the garden (or square) of nobleman Jacques de Levens, in the presence of François Dauphin, coseigneur and Jacques Michaëlis, notary public at Castellane ".
Lordship of Estelle
In addition, Jean I de Raymond has partly the lordship of Estelle", which the other party belongs to Bartholomew de Demandolx, father of Paulet and Eyries. This first castle whose ruins and pieces of curtain walls occupy a Summit overlooking the left bank of the Artuby, in the Canjuers military camp, Raimond Bérenger V took it, in 1235, Guy of Ampus and his nephew Raimbaud de Grasse, giving them in Exchange Gourdon and Le Bar "(common current of the Alpes-Maritimes). Then a family took the name: Bertrand Rimbaud D'estelle paid homage in 1270 to the comte de Provence Charles I; He lived on this earth, as well as his son. Their descendants, artillery and the Navy, Commissioners called by their functions to reside in Toulon and Marseille, then there were married and fixed; they enrich in trading; Some will be consuls in Barbary (North Africa). In 1309, the seigneury was shared between Boniface de Roumoules and Raymond of Esparron, coseigneur of Esparron-du-Verclon, Saint-Jurs, etc., which are maintained a bayle.
On the death of John I"of Raymond, after the middle of the 15th century, his son Pierre succeeded him at Eoulx. It inherits probably also on the part of Alban de Raymond, because there will be more now only one Lord in this Lordship. Eyries de Demandolx will receive Trigance and due to his wife Estelle.
Lords of Demandolx Trigance and la Palud
Successors of Isnard, Pons de Demandolx, who had sworn homage to the count of Provence Louis II of Anjou (1399) at Tarascon, and its parent André de Demandolx, were all two Demandolx co-seigneurs. The son of the first, Barthelemy, which will be viguier of Arles twenty-five years later, and the daughter of the second, Beatrix, married together (1440), thereby achieving unity of a seit, meurie that will belong to their family until the French Revolution. They had four sons, including Paulet, Eyries, and Antoine. It, hiyam Castellane, will inherit (1471) of Icard de La Coste, coseigneurie Clumanc, he bequeathed (1492) John, son of his brother Paulet. Paulet and Eyries married the same day, in 1461, the two sisters, Jeanne and Louise, daughters of Raymond, Lord of Eoulx, Trigance, and Estelle.
Eyries thus receives because of his wife Trigance and Estelle, that his family will retain until the 16th century. His death (shortly after 1504), he will be succeeded by his son Claude de Demandolx-Trigance.
Paulet should succeed his father Barthélemy Demandolx head but he died before him, leaving three sons, Peter and John. Inheriting from his grandfather, Pierre will become Lord of Demandolx (1494), while Jean, who will have inherited (1492) of his uncle Antoine Clumanc coseigneurie, married the same year Honorade de Jarente which would bring him the seigneuries of La Palud and Meyreste, which will remain in his family until the French Revolution.
Thus, during the next two centuries, three branches of the family Demandolx will have under their jurisdiction the seigneuries of Demandolx, Trigance and la Palud.
Demandolx name has not always been written or pronounced in the same way: this family will be given to the order of the Hospital (which became the order of Rhodes, and of Malta), over thirty-five Knights, with several reaching the first dignities; However, in the records of the order, the name is written Demandols, plus later ask and ask.
Roles of the Demandolx
Finally in old papers, there Demandoux, ask, Demandols and Demandolx; It is this last form prevailed. In addition to those who have distinguished themselves under the banner of Malta, other Demandolx played a role beyond the boundaries of the region. Such is the case of Michel Demandolx, citizen of Aix, who, by letter dated January 18, 1437, King René grant the Bailiwick of Saint-Paul-de-Vence, United to the oldest of Guillaume Bailiwick, at the same time as the Bailiwick of the Annot Val and Val Chanan. He combined the office of bailiff and hiyam and notaire19 functions. Finally yesterday as today, the name of Demandolx is worn also by non-noble families: in the archives, there is for example, in 1634, a Bastien Demandolx, Chasteuil, plaintiff in payment of £ 12 for the wages of Antoine, his son, Shepherd, against Claude Imbert, de Castellane; around 1676, a Joseph Demandolx is the subject of prosecution on the part of Joseph Bérard, Draper of Castellane merchant, to whom, "a fist on the figure", he "had a considerable contusion to the left eye".
As the land that gave the family his surname and found reference to 1200 in the form of "Mandols" and around 1300, in of "de Demandolis". This name may come from the tribe of celto-Ligurian Mandubii, or the word ligure "man - d". It also appoints, as close shapes, other places in the region, including:
- In the commune of Saint-Jurs, one mile northeast of the village, a locality and a ravine called Demandols;
- Between Blieux and tighten, ask is a dominant Woody massif, to the South, the Asse of Blieux and, to the Southwest, the Malamort ravine.
When they marry, the same day of the year 1461, the two brothers Putiet and Demanclolx Eyries, two sisters Jeanne and Louise de Raimonclis are orphaned. Their father, John I, says Gros, died after the middle of the fifteenth century, at an unspecified date. It is Raymond Pierre, his son and heir, authorizing the marriage of her sisters. Double contract is passed on 12 may 1461, between him and Barthélemy de Demandolx. Here is an excerpt dated the year 1504, and copied by Antoine Laurenci, notary public of Castellane, on the writings of "honorabili quendam viii magistri Audran Lamberti", also public notary of Castellane. This excerpt is written half in latin, half in Provençal: "it was agreed that, as it is reasonable, to bear the expenses of the marriage, the young ladies have dot; These girls are dot all present and future rights to the legacy of their father and mother, and anything that could come from them on the other. It is agreed between the parties that says Demandolx must dress the girls of their bridal gowns, said according to their State, when will come the day of the nuptials. "It was agreed that as soon as the coffers will be given, says Demanclolx will the administration and the Government of any inheritance and per - persons of Jeanne and Louise, and the Demandolx above shall and must pay debts and reasonable charges which will be drawn from the above inheritance". This contract is concluded in the old Castle of Eoulx.
The son of Pierre de Raymond, Elzéar, who married Louise de Castellane - Salernes, pays tribute to Eoulx (1537), as well as his son Jean II (1541).
In the various Lordships in the region
- Aiguines: Jean de Sabran, son of Elzéar of Sabran, itself has a son, Pierre de Sabran, who succeeded him at the head of several seigneuries, notably in Baudinard and Levens, and going on with the community of Aiguines a transaction that fixed the tasques allows to "jas, houses, vineyards, accurate..." subject 2 guilders the albergue, regulates the depaissance in the grazing, use of Earth gante, "cabestrage", lods and trezains, the "megeries of averages", "retainers", the hunting of large wild animals. The transaction also confirms the delivery by the Lord of the House of the Holy Spirit and can plow the (Wells of Charombail. Pierre de Sabran qualify Arian and Apici County when his first cousin, Hélion of Sabran, baron of Ansouis, will have given him these counties (1503). He will receive a letter with the subscription "to my cousin, count of Arian" of Francis I. It will test in 1508. Married to Françoise de Vintimille, it has two daughters which combine the families of Villeneuve-Trans and Sabran-Ansouis, and a son, Louis de Sabran, who will succeed him.
- Rougon: Helion of Glandèves ready tribute in 1412; When the galleys of the King of Aragon make incursions on the Provençal shore and into the port of Marseille (1423 and 1447), he defended the coast as Governor of the castle of Hyère and "marine Commander for the coast". He paid tribute to this Lordship in 1412 and will be succeeded by Raymond de Glandèves, son-in-law of Palamède de Forbin, who will soon receive the burden of Seneschal of Provence.
- Blieux: this highly fragmented Lordship's main warlords chapter of Senez and family of Pontevès. Jean de Pontevès has indeed acquired rights that his family will retain until the eighteenth century. Gaspard de Pontevès lent tribute in 1137, gesture that will renew Durand in 1499 and Jean II in 1509 and 1515 and 1538. But in the year 1180, while Jacques de Jarente and chapter of Senez tribute to Charles III, Durand de Pontevès is at the head of the Provençal rebels. James, brother of Jean de Jarente, became coseigneur, after inheriting his grandfather Balthazar Seyne coseigneurie and Lordship of Selonnet; in 1480, he lends tribute to Charles III for its three Lordships.
- Senez: the Bishops of the place have made honour in 1351 Queen Jeanne, then in 1385 to Marie de Blois and renew it at Louis II in 1399, King René in 1480; they will keep Lette possession until the French Revolution, but in part only: Jean-Baptiste de Pontevès, coseigneur of Blieux, Lord of the Clue and other places, receives the Court of King René (1474); his successors Durand and Jean II de Pontevès will pay homage to this coseigneurie (1499 and 1515).
- The Clue: Jean I de Pontevès acquired (1408) Sancie Puget, widow of Giraud de Villeneuve; follow John the Baptist, Durand and Jean II of Pontevès, these two chaplains der paying tribute to the tiny sei-gneurie at the same time as Sandra.
- Chasteuil: Antoine Isnard, Secretary of Louis II, master rational from 1405 to 1417, sells in 1441 its share of the seigneury in Jean Puget for 700 guilders, at the same time as Brenon27. Of a family from Brignolles, Jean Puget was ennobled by letters of March 1443 by King René; at the same time, he acquired Aurefroide and Fuveau. It leaves of sweet de Clapier ten children including: Raimond de Puget, who is Advisor of State of King René; acquired the County of Tende lands Prats, Blegier, and Chanoles, which made tribute 1065); Hugues, who founded the branch of Lords of cuveau, Chasteuil, Tourtour, and goat; tests 4 April 1500 and Antoinette de Guiran, leaves three sons whose: Jacques de Puget, Lord of Fuveau, first consul of Aix and Attorney of the country in 1509 and 1517; Jean Puget, coseigneur of Chasteuil; his son, François de Puget., Lord of Chasteuil, had in turn a son, François Il de Puget, succeeding in Chasteuil; Henri has only one son, who enters the family of Davenport; Antoine married Philippe de Pérussis, who has two sons, Honoré and Raimond: Honoré de Puget, Lord of Prats, Provost of the Constabulary during the invasion of Charles. Quint in Provence in 1520, will be beheaded in Aix for bringing to this prince the keys to this city; Raimond, Lord of Chasteuil, which Jeanne Toard Laugier, Gaspard and Antoine.
- Majastres: Jean de Sade, doctor of laws, received in 1411 County Provence Louis Il, part of this Lordship (of also depopulated) at the same time as rights to Saint-Jurs, Creisset and the hair. His son Girard, who succeeded him at the head of all these lands, still has them in 1483. Castellane Jean, cosei-pleur Thorame-Basse and Roumoules, bought (1430) to an another coseigneur of Roumoules, Antoine de Lincel, its rights to Majastres; his son, Castellane Florens, succeeded him and ready homage to Charles III of Maine (1480); his family will retain the coseigneurie up to the Revolution, but in having yielded a part to Melchior and Balthazar de Ferrier, who will lend tribute (1509 and 1537).
- Levens: Guillaume de Foissard tribute (1412) to this Lordship, she also depopulated and that will remain until the xvir century, at the same time as for its Saint-Jurs co-Seigneuries, arm of Asse and Saint-Jeannet; succeed him Jean de Sabran (1463), Lord of Aiguines, and Pierre de Sabran, which, for a fee, will sell the seigneury to Pierre and Antoine de Matheron, Lords of La Pérusse (1501); they have also, at the beginning of the 16th century ' century, all or part of Trévenans, Estoublon, Barras, etc.; Antoine horsetail tribute to Levens in 1509.
- SaintJurs: this Lordship, we know, is the most fragmented: we have already quoted Jean de Sade and his son Girard as co-seigneurs of this land and Majastres; Guillaume de Foissard made tribute in 1112 at Louis II for this Lordship rn even time for Levens, Bras D'asse, and Saint-Jeannet (today municipality of the canton of Mézel); there for successors to Saint-Jurs, Leonard and Martin de Poissard, which lend tribute ensemble, in 1481, Charles III, and in 1507; previously (1399), count Louis 11 had received the tribute of Geoffroy de Latil, Jacques and Bertrand of prayer (at the same time for their coseigneurie by Chaudon), Antoine de Fabre and Bertrand of Esparron (at the same time that for its co-seigneuries of Blieux arm of Asse, Estoublon, etc; the King René, in turn, receives tribute first to Giraud of software in 1445which has successors Louis then Antoine, co-seigneurs Bras D'asse, then Fouquet of software; then of Georges de Piousin, 1480; It will renew the tribute in 1537, and then two years later his widow, Marie de Ventimiglia, will be provided. But throughout the centuries, it is the House of Castellane remaining major Lord of Saint-Jurs: Honoré de Castellane pays tribute in 1418 to the Queen Yolande of Aragon; in 1509, Claude de Castellane will do it then.
- Robion:, Jean de Brignoles lent tribute in 1113; then Honoré de Requiston (1440) at the same time than for other lands that it owns to Saint-André-de-Méouilles and Soleihas; then the seigneury is integrated in the count field, almost until in the middle of the century xvr. François de Rascas will buy the Castle, at the same time as that of Taloire, in 1537, the overall price of 347 pounds.
- Taloire: was also incorporated into the comtal field during the x century, until 1537, date at which François de Rascas acquires with the castle of Robion.
- Villars-Brandis will more Lord until the xvhr century experience.
- Taulanne: Jean and Guillaume Albert received the Lordship in 1474 by King René.
- Bourguet-Bagarry: Arnaud de Villeneuve-Trans tribute for its part of the castrum; Baggaris Boniface does in 1474, and honoured to Castellane the following year.
The Provençal nation loses its identity but keeps its autonomy
The man of Louis XI, Palamède de Forbin, appointed his son-in-law Raymond de Glandèves Lord of Rougon, Seneschal
The 15th and 16th centuries will thus form a transition period during which Western Europe gradually from the middle ages to modern times. It was during this period that the Provence joins then will integrate with the Kingdom of France. In the leaving in the mid of France, Charles III asked as a condition the maintenance of privileges and the status of the County, and respect for its independence policy. Of course, Louis XI accepts the legacy and subscribed to these conditions. Thanks to the skill wheeler-dealer of his King, the France comes to operate one of the most beautiful of these acquisitions contributing little by little to his unit, and becomes one of the first Mediterranean nations. Therefore the history of Provence will merge more and more with its history.
Certainly, the political leaders and the people are attached to the Provençal nation, its traditions, its privileges, its customs. In addition, they feed on unfavorable feelings about terrible Louis XI. But the Suppression of the resistance, the previous year, leaves no hope for opponents: less than twenty days after the death of Charles III (11 December 1481), the States, meeting in Aix by the Seneschal Pierre of jaille, officially recognize as count the King of France. Palamède de Forbin, that serves the interests of it without neglecting those of Provence or his personal ambitions, persuaded him of the need to appoint the head of the County a man who well knows the complexity of the situation. It therefore reappears in Aix to Christmas, with Royal letters that establish it lieutenant of Provence, and invest him full powers.
Immediately, he receives the oath of the principal officers, replaces the Seneschal in place by his own son-in-law, Raymond de Glandèves, Lord Hawk, and Rougon, coseigneur of Châteauneuf-les-Moustiers, Governor in the Dauphiné, and convenes for a new Assembly of States on January 15. At that session, he vote a true Provençal Constitution, which received the prior approval of the King, and it not realized the real scope. In fact, the first "chapter" well stipulates recognition of the King of France as count of Provence, but the fifty-two following provide the complete autonomy County, under the authority of a lieutenant general responsible for political and administrative before the King. And an old claim is reaffirmed that no person shall exercise a public office is a native of Provence.
Immediately, Palamède de Forbin provides the administrative burden for licensees Provencal. He took the opportunity to get rid of opponents, as Louis de Villeneuve, Lord of Séranon and marquis of Trans, and those whom he suspects of lukewarmness for the new sovereign. On the other hand, it rewards the former resistance fighters rallied to the French cause: D'agoult Raimond, Lord of Cipieres, general visitor of gabelles Jean, son of Durand de Pontevès, coseigneur of Châteauneuf, becomes viguier of Aix; Rao Barthelemy (who has acquired in 1481 of the Bishop of Riez part of Sainte-Croix-du-Verdon), receives a pension. Of course Palamidi promotes his family and his friends, installs them in the seigneuries that it has confiscated. It takes itself more in Haute-Provence, including Peyruis and Puimichel (1481). It will acquire others, including arms of Anse and Sausses (1504).
It is made of friendships, not always disinterested. His daughter Honoree married Boniface de Castellane, Lord of Esparron. He entrusts the burden of the town of Castellane surender to Antoine de Demandolx (1182), fourth son of Bartholomew, Lord of Demandolx. He does not forget his own sons: Nicolas became captain of the town of Hyères, Louis, which he called first master rational to the Board of Auditors in March 1482, then in September judge-mage, and receives many lands, especially in Haute-Provence, where he became Lord of Soleihas (1496) and coseigneur of Saint-Martin-Albignosc (1509).
Louis XI, King of France, is demolishing the rock Fortress (1483)
Abuses are denounced, complaints amounts. But it is in the exclusive Provence of lucrative IPOs reboot, much more than in the jealousy aroused by the fortune of Forbin, need to see the origin of the replacement of Sir Palamedes by the Governor of Burgundy, Jean de Baudricourt, in April 1483. This last is working at the behest of the King, to dismiss the Provencal to replace them with French). It removes Raymond de Glandèves Seneschal workload. In less than three months, it reform many acts, renders land. In July, Palamède de Forbin returned, found his load of lieutenant-general and the Seneschal, for his son-in-law. But the lesson has taken. Besides Louis XI died a month after. Not without having taken the precaution to shave several castles and fortifications, which he considered unnecessary for the external defence of the country, but dangerous in the event of insurrection of disgruntled. Therefore, is demolished the fortress of Castellane by order of Louis XI. Dismantle the Citadel of the Roc, is to recognize, in a good way unfriendly it is true, the role politics of Castellane.
The preponderance of the small town at the heart of a rather poor region, asserting as much in economic and cultural fields. This is why the bishops tried for decades to transfer their seat. It is not that their Senez Cathedral lacks pace, despite its modest dimensions: 42 m in length, 22.50 m in width.
But Sandra fits among the Episcopal cities the most cramped of the Kingdom, and the bishopric, the poorest. Elzéar de Villeneuve, at which it has accrued (1459), has established his habitual residence in Castellane. The first, he tried to obtain the translation of the seat of the diocese. In vain. His successors there will also, without more successful. We know the reasons that motivate their approach: built on the rock before the year 1000 to prevent barbarian invasions, their Castle, despite a few adaptations that have made it more habitable, juche always "on a high mountain and far enough away from the Church", as noted even in the 16th century bishop Aubert of Villeserin (1671-1695), so well that the Bishop "cannot fall in the Church during snow"", the ice and other rigors of the winter, without exposing his health and even his life in danger obvious"... But why the bishops face, since the 15th century, sometimes opposed by the King, sometimes of the Pope?
However, if the seat of Sandra can sometimes accommodate a little banal character, well rarely happens that it is occupied by a subversive personality. Born in Arles (1526) a family that holds a significant rank in the Rhône region, and has the seigneuries of Vaquieres Ventabren and the small barony of Beaujeu, not far from Digne, Pierre de Quiqueran was Bishop of Senez at the age of twenty. Before dying in Paris four years later (1550), he will have found the time, if it doesn't come to Senez listen to muted breath ASSE, at least to write in latin a work "De laudibus" Provinciae libri Ires that, published a year after his death, not published in 1614 in french. Translated under the title "The leased Provence", it is still authoritative in Agronomy and Provencal hunting enthusiasts. Everything else is the character of Bishop Jean Soanen, Bishop of Senez in 1695: placed by the circumstances, despite his modesty and his charity, at the head of the Provençal Jansenism, he will continue, from the bottom of the monastery of La Chaise-Dieu where it it will be eventually exiled, to urge its dio-cesains to remain faithful to the uncompromising faith that he taught them.
Antoine de Demandolx built the current Castle (before 1572) in la Palud
Meanwhile, the village of La Palud is developed, the houses of individuals themselves are agglomerated gradually around the central square without a pre-established plan, a stretched and diffuse way, this overflow prevents any expansion of the century-old seigniorial. Antoine decided to draw up a little further a new Castle, more impo sant, and probably the defensive aspect marked since, in the testament of his first wife, the notary of Moustiers Jean Ruffi will appoint it under the term of "forlalicif' (fortress, Castle)." And when Antoine himself there test (2 October 8, 1572), it will be in "new room", which could indicate a fairly recent work lin.
Barely exceeding its quadrangular mass taken between four towers houses, this castle is actually the work of different eras. A portion of its North facade belongs to the building from the 16th century, but has been extended (formerly it distinguished clearly sewing) and encompassed clans a new construction. Result of profound remodelling suffered on the eve of the Revolution: a building with three floors, with arched windows (those of the upper are lower), and two portals. that of the south facade presents a rangetop curving at its centre, and based on two raised pilasters.
It was sold as a national asset. When and how have location sharing and its sale? We know only that they intervene only after 1795.
The wars of Italy: first invasion of Provence (1524)
Provence has lost its national independence, but keep for now at least, its autonomy which the successor of Louis XI, Charles VIII, supported sincerely throughout his reign (1483-1498). Palamède de Forbin was relieved of her duties (October 1483). AIX, States ratify formally and definitively (1487) the attachment of the Provence in France by specifying "not as an accessory to a principal, but as a principal to a principal, and separately from the rest of the Kingdom".
Charles VIII immediately considering the rights on the Kingdom of Naples he inherited the County of Provence. He devoted the last two years of his reign. The expedition goes wrong. Returning to France, he died in his castle of Amboise, a result of an accident. His successor, Louis XII, whose reign will be little longer, soon to resume the road to Italy. Previously, he founded in Aix the Parliament of Provence. Designating the head of it of non-Provençal magistrates, it overlaps with discretion on the privileges of the County. He is no happier than his predecessor clans the conduct of the expedition. Its downside lead the invasion of the national territory, to the North and East. He died January 1, 1515. His cousin François succeeded him, and crossed the Alps in turn. The victory at Marignano (September 1515) opened the doors of the weapon and Piacenza.
As early as 1520, he committed the war against Charles Quint. The French army lost the Milanese (1522), and then returns the Alps (early July 1524). The Imperial forces invade the maritime Provence while the montagnards, occupying the passes, prohibit the passage of Tende and Alpine routes. until Manosque which destroyed all houses built outside its walls in order to support a possible seat. Not meeting any troops before it, the Imperial Army enters Aix (7 August) after receiving the keys to the hands of Honoré de Puget, Provost Marshal general of the Maréchaussée of Provence, related to the Lords of Chasteuil. But it fails in the siege of Marseille, retired (28 September) and then returns the Var. This invasion stops some time economic recovery on the lands of the Verdon and surrounding areas. Colmars, which numbered 327 fires before the great plague and had dropped to 107 in 1365, then re-edited to 173 in 1450 and 240 in 1515, counts more than 192 lights.
François between AIX (1 October), made decapitate Honoré de Puget, returned to the Italy (October 5) by Sisteron and the col de Mont Geneva. Defeated at Pavia (24 February 1525), he is was taken prisoner, while Claude de Demandolx-Trigance loses life.
Second invasion of Provence
Two years after the battle of Pavia, Francis I resumed the war. The French conquered once more based in Milan, and then suffered a series of setbacks. Finally, the peace of the ladies (1529) interrupts the hostilities for a few years. Through its trials and its concerns, the country of Provence ceased to prove his loyalty. He gave extraordinary subsidies for the purposes of the war. But in the States, in Aix, frequent meetings MEPs took consciousness of the value of their contest, have become accustomed to an active public life, discuss the measures proposed by the royal Government and the personality of the agents of the sovereign.
Their intractability awakens the instinct authoritarian and unifying of the French monarchy. Francis I promulgated the edict of Joinville (1525) by which the Provence, losing part of its autonomy, is integrated frameworks of the judicial and financial organization of the Kingdom. It is, therefore, ready to receive the entire Royal administration and his officers. States can no longer meet only once a year, and deliberate than on the issues put on the agenda of the day by the Royal Commissioners. Parliament created by Louis XII instead sees its expanded powers, and becomes the supreme instance. The country moves from the phase of 'the union' with the France than 'integration' in the France.
Yet when, the following year, a new invasion, led by Charles Quint and the Duke of Savoy, still experience their loyalty, the Provencal do not hesitate. François I having occupy the Valley of Barcelonnette, which is given to the Duke of Savoy from 1388, imperial armies spend the Var, on July 26, 1536, and invade a second time the maritime Provence. The King, who does not have the means to stop them, gave the order to the desert before them. He made devastate the country, "break all the furnaces and Mills, burning wheat and fodder, and screwed the wines of all those who did not care to remove them in strongholds; also spoil wells, throwing wheat inside in order to corrupt the waters". He is obeyed: the city of Grasse could not be defended, its walls were dismantled; Draguignan, worthy undergo destruction. Charles Quint army advance. The French troops, who formed a cordon at the edge of Provence, fold methodically. The Emperor marched on Aix less easily that he had predicted.
Castellane victoriously supports a seat (1536)
Castellane supports a seat victoriously. On the orders of the King, the Lord of Bonneval destroys everything that could help the enemy: fruits of the orchards, crops, fodder. He did hide the herds in the mountain, demolish the houses which, in the countryside and in the vicinity of the city, could serve as a retirement. He spared neither the Bell Tower of Notre-Dame - the Plan, nor the territory windmills, not even the hospital Saint-Martin. Also, topped with five hundred men under the command of Honoré de Grasse, Lord of Briançon, the city quite easily resists the onslaught. On the contrary, in Senez, who suffered the same destruction but no soldier protects imperial troops plundered the episcopal Palace and tax residents.
The city of Aix is not forbidden: the Duke of Savoy in fact burn the Palace. An enemy body dates the Durance, occupies Manosque, but must soon withdraw: the Imperial Army is defeated before Marseille and Arles. Meanwhile, Francis I, which strengthens his army between the Rhône and Durance, launches an attack on Turin and Genoa to take the imperial in reverse. Worried about the double maneuver, his troops weakened by starvation and dysentery, Charles Quint ordered a retreat. It is harassment of the guerrillas. When they ironed the Var, on 24 September, the Imperial Army leave behind twenty thousand of them.
The country recovers the work once more. The war lasted until 1538, but outside the borders. When she resumed (1542), Provence there is interested by the arrival at Toulon (1543) of the Turkish fleet of Keiredin Barbarossa. Turkish and OM ships attack together Villefranche and take Nice (August 12, 1543). After the victory, the Turkish ships return to Toulon (29 September) and their crews will hold their districts during six months in the city emptied of most of its inhabitants. In Italy, the French troops win the battle of Ceresole (1544) in Piedmont; the same year, the peace is signed to Crepy.a the battle of Ceresole, a brother of Antoine de Demandolx - La Palud, Guillaume, was killed at the head of his five hundred men: "seeing wounded to death of an arquebusade, he commanded that it covered him so that his soldiers does screw it not die. It was a very determined man, who repeatedly fought duel and had visited many Honourable actions in this province".
The end of Glandèves in Rougon (1561), where will settle for a century the Brun de Castellane
Glancleves holding since 1390 among other seigneuries of Château-Arnoux and Rougon and the coseigneurie of Châteauneuf, go as a result of marriages or sales, soon to assign their rights in these assets, as well as on Peregrine, their main possession.
Châteauneuf and Rougon, Raymond de Glandèves, son-in-law of Palamède de Forbin, was succeeded by his son Pierre. It is his eldest son Helion it had instituted heir in his will (Arles, January 18, 1492), but in the event where it could gather the family patrimony, he had taken the precaution to replace his younger son. In addition, he had left the usufruct of his property at Baptistine Forbine, his wife. He had also made a bequest to the Church of Châteauneuf, founded by his father. On the death of Pierre, his son Gaspard de Glandèves, who married Marguerite of prayer, will inherit all these Lordships (and will make tribute in 1560 for the Rougon), with the exception of Chateauneuf, who passes to François de Galicia, husband of Françoise de Glandèves, of the branch of the Villevieille Glandèves (today's canton of Entrevaux).
The co-seigneurs, during the first half of the 16th century, are
- Palamède de Marc, who lent tribute (1560) for t
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
- Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
- Consequences of the wars of religion
- Taxes, debt and economic ruin
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge