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Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour

Œuvres and maneuvers of the Bishop Augier and Guillaume de Moustiers rebellion

From the beginning of the 11th century, members of large Provençal families had got hold of the Bishoprics, and younger of chivalrous lineages had cornered the dignities of the Episcopal chapters; in this way, each and others had seized many properties of Church. A new Bishop, Augier, accesses the siege of Riez in 1090. Probably because he is grandson of Arbert of sandeel and nephew of former Bishop Bertrand, and it belongs to the aristocratic family of the Pontevès Spada, holder of many lands, in particular in and around their Lordship, the princes of Riez do not appear to have upset his accession to the head of the diocese. Using the threat and persuasion, the supporters of the Gregorian reform have managed to place one of them on almost all Provencal seats. Of modest origins with few exceptions, they are priority tasks, in particular, the reconquest of the ecclesiastical patrimony. Augier is coupled with all the more zeal that, unlike the other reformist bishops, he is the youngest of a great lineage, and that the reform intends to take advantage of its origin. Enjoying probably the death of William, prince of Riez, it seeks first to remove his family from the Episcopal city. In the stately that it seizes on the oppidum Saint-Maxime, no secular prince will install more, in accordance with the papal ban. But since at least 1096, Guillaume II folded Moustiers and taken refuge in the caste, probably perched on the oppidum, at the top of the COE of Quinson.
Immediately Augier deals in turn of Moustiers. On 7 March of the same year, he gave to the parish of the castrum of Lérins Abbey, i.e. the Sainte-Marie church, with the churches that depend on the Valley. At the same time, it gives to the Abbey of Montmajour, through the Priory of Estoublon, not only everything Guillaume Taxil Chauvet, domain and Church, but also has the rights and revenues (one quarter of the decimated) that it holds clans the seigneuries of Saint-jars and Rougon. The first if the richest of the Knights of the entourage of Guillaume de Moustiers out pretty much ruined his mishap, and his son will have another future by monk at Lérins. But to open its doors, Abbey will still require father land it owns around the Church of Saint-Saturnin Church that she will is given by the wife and children of the Lord, and that it relate to the parish St. Mary's when March 6, 1256, she will make it a Priory. Not far from new bridge of Aiguines, clans the current firm still bearing the name of Saint-Saturnin simpleton whose lands have been drowned by the Lake of Sainte-Croix, remain the apse in apse, CRA double roller and without studs a few sections of walls.

Attempt of response against the reformist Bishop

In a supreme attempt to limit the influence of the reformist Bishop and his instrument, the Abbey of Lérins, the Lord of Moustiers is building a new church that it, too, under the patronage of the Virgin near its castellum: Notre-Dame-de-la-Roche (synonym of Castle Rock). In order to strengthen its business, probably rely on the chapter of Riez, Augier donations thwart material interests. Yet from 1113, the Bishop forced the Provost of the chapter to resist the Abbey Notre-Dame-de-la-Roche, and for good measure, gives to it at the same time a number of other churches, including that of Brauch (near La Verdière, Township of Rians, Var) that it removes his own brother, Guillaume Augier. New Bishops strive with patience and stubbornness to reconstruct what they consider to be the domain of their church. Augier de Riez had ripped of the tithes and churches from the hands of the laity and the Pope them confirmed in 1114.
After his ouster of Riez, Guillaume de Moustiers probably felt this failure as the manifestation of an irreducible will hunt without return. Also twelve years later, when broke out in Central Provence, a rebellion directed less against the County against Lérins, railed hand against those weapons which, after having him deported to a city whose parents were princes for a century, the deprived of part of its resources by removing the churches of the region. With his support, the cathedral chapter which the canons, for the most part, are loyal, seizes by force of the parish church Sainte-Marie and Notre-Dame-de-la-Roche. The call of Lérins, Pope Honorius II sends a bubble to the Bishops of Antibes, Fréjus and Riez to return to the monastery churches "that it had been taken by violence", and Raimond Bérenger 1 "will find there the opportunity to intervene in the life of a region where his authority is still poorly insured.
Shortly after the bloody intervention of the count, the Bishop Augier makes Gérin, Abbot of Lérins, the Sainte-Marie church. A mass is celebrated before the people of the castellum, i.e. the knights who took part in the revolts. But partly destroyed, this centuries-old church and the recent Notre Dame-de-la-Roche should be razed. The location of the first, will start after 1126 the construction of a new building (the oldest part of the Church as we know) and the Bell Tower; It will end before 1150, when Lérins rebuilt Notre-Dame-de-la-Roche (the Romanesque part of the present Chapel) and probably change the term, it replaces by more topographic of Notre-Dame-of Entre-Roches, which will soon become Notre-Dame-de-Beauvoir.

The val de Chauvet, the ravine of the endorsement of Riez, St Peter's Church and his house of hospitality

Montmajour has benefited less than the "generosity" of Augier Lérins. The Abbey of the Rhone Provence has nothing in the Valley of the Verdon, and only the Priory of Estoublon, since 1011, in the Valley of Asse. In March 1096, Bishop merely cede, through Estoublon, another Church at the same time as Guillaume Taxil goods, "any hold for him", including Saint-Pierre of Chandran. And in 1204, a papal assign yet the Church in the new village of Châteauneuf, dedicated to saint Ponsi."
While this church Saint-Pierre of Chandran no longer exists for a long time, toponymy has preserved the memory of its location: first a neighbourhood, on the left bank of the Baou, is still called Sanl-Peïre. then, at the bottom of this district, near an old mill, and the bridge that crosses the path coming from Châteauneuf, the torrent of the Grave joins with Bailey at the foot of a small hill that locals call "Gleia" (the Church in Alpine Provençal). A few piles of stones and traces of arrangements of the bedrock suggest that the site was inhabited at a difficult to specify time, between antiquity and the middle ages. St Peter's Church was still standing in the 14th century, flanked to a "hospitalis", charitable organization which hosted little wealthy travellers or without resources, foreshadowing the modest solidarity institutions which, as the "Maison des Pauvres" of La Palud and other villages, attended until the 19th century trimardeurs and agricultural workers looking for a job. A conflict in 1333 the Estoublon prior to the "hospitalarius" responsible for the maintenance of the sanctuary and the "hospitalis" of "St. Peter of the Val – de – Chauvet", that rule an Act passed "to the castrum de Châteauneuf, in the House of noble Crota Raylmlbaud, coseigneur of said place.

Destruction and assumptions

Two centuries earlier, another conflict, armed, would have resulted in the sacking of the eastern part of Chauvet. The destruction of the Chastelas and habitats that were there, would explain the presence of many heaps of stones scattered clans thorny vegetation, and on which to collect Roman art pottery shards, pieces of wheel rhyolite and basalt, abundant fragments of tegulae, ferrous residues and coarse iron tips. Pieces of cooked pises, as well as the name of a place called: "la Combe Rimai", suggest the idea of a fire associated with the rampage.
On the other hand, a small ravine, on the West side of the Chastelas, is called "The downstream of Riez" (the Vallon de Riez); fall on the name of Riez in this lost corner of mountain, 20 km as the crow flies from the Episcopal city, twice by railways, puzzled leaves. That could happen?... By studying places and the religio-political context, a hypothesis comes to mind:

  • The eastern border of the diocese of Riez was the course of the Baou over 7 km, and then branched off in a northerly direction; She would then borrowed the small Riverbed which, for this reason, would have been named the downstream of Riez;
  • Not corresponding to that of the diocese of Riez, the eastern boundary of the field of Chauvet was formed, 3 km to the East, by the Praoux Valley which, by its importance, is a good natural boundary;
  • The space between the two valleys and all that it contains, including the Chastellas himself and habitats, would have been as a result of the diocese of Senez, whose Bishop was a Castellane;
  • Notwithstanding, the Bishop of Riez reportedly estimated that having taken the field of Taxil and the having ceded to Montmajour, space now belonged to the Abbey and that could push the limits of his diocese until the Valley of Praoux;
  • Rejecting both control over a territory owned by Sandra and assignment forced a quarter of the tithes that Taxil held on his seigneury of Rougon, Boniface de Castellane would have trashed everything was there;
  • It would be these reprisals that Augier would have retaliated by calling on Pope Paschal II, seen, confirms in 1114 the eastern border of the diocese of Riez (without the slightest allusion, obviously, to the annexation of part of Chative).

Thus is explained the fact that, nowadays, while that upstream of the Baou, the le vallon Valley Praoux is always the line of sharing between the municipalities of Rougon and
Châteauneuf, the small ravine of the downstream of Riez retained a name which was forgotten since long.

The trouble of the Abbey Saint-Victor de Marseille with the Lords of Petra Castellana

Culmination of a decadence of centuries, around the year 1000, the Abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille had lost all its Priories and had five monks. To the restructure and reinvigorate it, the Countess Azalaïs, widow of Guillaume le Libérateur, convened in 1005 a large Assembly that it presided over itself, surrounded by his two sons, William, count of Provence, and another William, count of Toulouse. The three Abbots of Saint-Gervais, Montmajour and Psalmody, the archbishops and bishops of Arles, Aix, Embrun, Marseille took part. The Bishop of Riez, Aumérade, probably brother of Gerin, prince of Riez, also attended. But not Peter, Bishop of Senez, although its installation on the seat of the diocese has put an end to 380-year interruption in the list of bishops. His kinship with the Castellane, in conflict with Saint-Victor as with the County, probably explains his absence. The Assembly instructed Abbot to the resolved character, Guifré, continue the reform of the Abbey and reconstruct the heritage. And Guifré calls strongly for its former possessions to the Lords of Petra Castellana, who will make a deaf ear for half a century.

Isarn and Amiel

His successor at the head of the Abbey, Isarn (1020-1047), shared the concerns of the precursors of disciplinary, spiritual and temporal of the church reform. Surrenders to the Abbey "'. Among revealing episodes that punctuate the abbatial Isarn along, is a stay at la Métairie Lapes where, according to the "Vila Ysarni, Acta Sanctorum", after having converted the fierce Lord Aldebert or Adalard, plunderer of peasants, it takes "the path of Petra Castellana". It does not in this place just to bless the castle of the Lord of Demandolx, exposed to the ravages of the lightning. He talks surely, if not with the Lords, at least with their brother, Amiel, Bishop of Senez. Doing to make themselves understood? The fact remains that in 1038, "had heard that Petra Castellana was once a castrum or a villa owned by JARL at the Abbey of Saint-Victor", Amiel, "gives or makes" to a small agricultural area located on this territory. By this Act, considerable symbolic value, he broke with the traditional behavior of his family by recognizing the anteriority of the Abbey in the possession of the place.
In Marseille, on the occasion of the consecration of the Abbey Church, October 15, 1040, Amiel renders officially as Bishop of Senez, Sainte-Marie, St-Jean-Baptiste Church, St. Peter and St. Lawrence, "which are in place or the villa called Petra Castellana, Ducelia or Cimiranis". He expressed regret that other monks have unduly held them for years, even though he "forgets" that he himself had accepted to the Abbey Saint-Gervais. The presence of the Archbishop of Arles, Diocese of Marseille, Avignon, Apt, Fréjus, etc., prints to its restitution an irreversible and revealed the degree of evolution of minds... From elsewhere when, a little later, it abandoned to the Priory of Petra Castellana, where the monks have returned, a number of rights that he keeps in a Charter, his successor in the seat of Senez, Hugues, son of his nephew Dodon, approves it, but also his own brother, Aldebert - which, for the occasion diverts his signature of his title of Lord - as well as the wife and children of the, the brothers of Hugues1 ", etc.

Curious self-criticism session: ripping off "L'Aveu" (1053) the monks seek to hide their carelessness last?

What happened over the next decade? The Lords of Castellane returned on their word?... The fact remains that the Abbey of Saint-Victor does not consider itself still satisfied. Until in 1053, it gets bishops Amiel and Hugues, by their brothers or uncles the Lords Alclebert and Rostaing, children and nephews thereof, at the same time as confirmation of the refund, public confession of their "theft", as well as trademarks of contrition. This solemn recognition of their wrongs in Castellane even under the vault of the Church Sainte-Marie, is accompanied by formalities which, if they occurred today, would appear to be the culmination of a real political trial.
These admissions may be summed up in three sentences:

  1. Jason Aldean and his family admit having "heard favourably complaints that were time where Guifré was Abbot [1005-1021],
  2. the monks of Saint-Victor; They claimed the land that had depended on the Sainte-Marie church,
  3. as well as a place once called Cimira, which had belonged them under charters very old and true"...

Carefully recorded by a monk in a Charter written on-site - document today called "Charter of Petra Castellana" - this self-criticism is signed by Lord Aldebert, his wife Ermengarde, his brothers Amiel, the Bishop, and Rostaing, and their nephews, son of Pons-D'arbaud. The number and titles of those who are engaged in underline the scope. And equally, the quality of those endorsing it:

  • The son of Jason Aldean: another Aldebert and Garac;
  • The children of the three sons of Pons-Arbaud: Son de Dodon: Hugues, Bishop of Senez, Pons Puverel (whose sons will, one, Boniface, the next Lord of Petra Castellana, another, Pierre, the next Bishop of saddle), Ripert, Laugier, another Boniface, Arbaud etc, son of Arbaud: Pierre Gaucelin, Pons, Robert and rubber; Son of Pons: Pons, Bishop of Glandèves, Hugues, Guérin, Bermond, Rodolphe, Pons and Junanus.

This "self-criticism session" is an embarrassing event. The Lords of Petra Castellana accounted for areas that had been to church, certainly. But fields with which the monks of Saint-Victor, by negligence, unworthiness or for any other cause, had been dispossess (or that they had wasted there is over two hundred years: the Polyptych of Wadalde already shows that at the time of Charlemagne, the Bishop of Marseilles had himself attached to its mense remnants of their former possessions)...

Contemporary explanations

Why then, thirteen years after the official property "restitution" that the monks had abandoned for so long, the Castellane lend themselves in a public demonstration demonstrably not probative is'nt? On the occasion of the conflicts that opposed to secular, often aristocratic families, bishops and monasteries were, and are seen today in posture of innocent and dispossessed victims. Indeed, in a study based on careful and penetrating Provencal cartularies, and first acts of Saint-Victor, Stephen Weinberger demonstrates that, generally, the laity, forced into the defensive, found themselves forced to protect, if necessary through violence, a heritage that the church wanted by invoking a spoliation there where there had been misappropriation or escheat, and which she grabbed for focus lands to its prey.
Castellane will be neither the last nor the hardest hit. Realistic, probably watched count as their main opponent, not Marseilles Abbey, believing that a compromise with it, even at full price, could be the indispensable basis of political independence to which they aspired above all. They already had showed them knew also exploit religion for their own gain. If the brother of Jason Aldean, Amiel, as Bishop of & nose, has played a key role in the evolution of the relationship with the Abbey, he was probably not played against his camp.
For even a century, three Castellane will this episcopal seat, and confirm again in Saint Victor possession of the cella of Petra Castellana, with Notre Dame, its trellis and three other churches: St. John, St. Peter and St. Lawrence (1089); in 1122, instead of St. Lawrence, will be named "curai babisterie".

.. .followed up wide refunds and serene coexistence

Little rancuniers and more for diplomats that will some of their successors, Jason Aldean and his family will continue to Saint-Victor and his local Priory: a tithe on the Levidon pond (Lake Alios) fish and cheeses in a wide area including the current municipalities of Beauvezer, Colmars and Allos. a farm of their own alleu territory even Petra Castellana, etc. Outlying possessions must also, consent of broad "refunds" that des moines, always careful, record clans their CARTULARY.
Subsequently, coexistence between Castellane and the Abbey seems to have been rather serene, probably for the benefit of everyone. By recording the name of all donors, these acts of the CARTULARY reveal fragmentation and explain the disruption of a part of the original estate, consequence of the difficulties encountered Castellane in shared between many parents. Trigance and Bagarry are shown.

The bastide of Suns, cause of the desertion of Saint-Pierre de Bagarry?

The vast territory covered by the toponym of Bagarry is today divided between the communes of Trigance and of Bourguet. His stand is old. On the right bank of the Jabron (tributary of the Verdon), 3 km south of the village of le Bourguet, a limestone Bar overlooks the road (leading to the hamlet of Jabron to Castellane by Le Bourguet and Robion). Height of the bridge where, until the Revolution, joined the three Bishoprics of would, Riez and Fréjus, this limestone bar, oriented northeast / southwest, just snap in another bar, oriented Northwest / Southeast, and form with it, to the South, an acute angle (elevation angle-tipped, 956 m; approximate length of each of the two sides. To the North, a relatively gentle slope opposes this angle acute and him giving somehow a long basis of 180 or closes the triangular geometric surface of the oppidum of the Ruissassou. Range, from South to North, five parallel dry stone walls; between the third and the fourth, the bushes hide the funds of huts, remains of many houses of peasants who have occupied this space. Their inhabitants had a path on the north slope to cultivate their fields, today shared the terroirs of La Treille, the bergerie Bagarry and the sheepfold of Saint-Pierre de Bagarry... It's probably a site pre-romain, but which could be reoccupied in the middle age.
To 1035, with the blessing of Amiel, Bishop of Senez, Albertrude and sons, Jason Aldean and Guigue, give the Abbey of St. Victor, the territory of the castrum of Bagarry, St Peter's Church and land while Guigue yields personally, if he has no heir to his death, half of Bagarry. The formulation of the Act leaves no doubt:

  • There is firstly the castrum and his parish church: first seigniorial family already took the name of Bagarry since twenty years earlier, when rendering by Gérin, prince of Riez, Lagnes and Auveine in Saint-Victor, an Igirannus de Bagarris was among the witnesses.
  • On the other hand there's this Church of Saint-Pierre, which belongs to the Abbey of Saint-Victor. We do not know exactly the moment where it installs monks. In 1089, when Peter, Bishop of Senez, enumerates the properties that it has in his diocese, he does not forget to mention this church. For their part, the Popes Gregory VII already in 1070, then Paschal II in 1113, and Innocent II in 1135, confirm this possession. In 1122, in the presence of the Lord of Castellane himself called in the Act for the first time "Boniface de Castellane", Bishop Aldebert cites the "that" (rural Priory) of Saint-Pierre de Bagarry occasion a new confirmation of the goods of the Abbey.

Why have monks they gone?

Then silence falls on the Priory. When and why the monks withdrew? In 1252, contained in the investigation that will lead the administration rights and revenues of Charles I in the County of Provence, but while on the same folio, set out with precision the comital rights on the Saint-etienne monastery, the Priory Saint-Jean from Doyon and the villa Saint-Raphaël, the line in front of his name stays white. Would the construction by Alphonse I of the bastide of Suns, prior to 1189, at the end of the territory of Saint-Pierre de Bagarry, cause the departure of the victorines?
As the castrum itself, its history is rather complicated. In 1278 count survey, Bagarry and the bastide of Suns are one community, with at their head, the brothers Ramon and Raibaud de Bagarris, heirs of Rostang de Bagarris, once subservient to Boniface de Castellane. According to the same survey, R. Brigotus is prior of the parish church of Notre-Dame de Bagarry, while G. Sparon is prior of Saint-Pierre and the rural Priory of Sainte-Anne.
According to Achard: 'the village of Bagarris was once on a hill in a demi-lieue of the current village (Le Bourguet). He had to be destroyed during the wars of religion: it was rebuilt on the way to Castellane. It is during this time that he took the name of Bourguet. The old church was destroyed by the heretics in the 16th century and the castle of the Lord was burned in l583. In reality, on its (alt. I 082 m) Hill that hides still some ruins under vegetation, Bagarry castrum, after gathering in 1319 a taxable families for the General queste 50, has been deserted as a result of the poli-tick and economic crisis which has terribly souf-fert Provence at the end of the 14th and at the beginning of 15th century. Need to wait before 1471 the community again has three families: at the request of the Lord of Andon, two brothers come settle around 1460 on a new location, then a third family associated itself with the resurrection of the village; It already available 23 houses in 1540, at the time where he will take the name of Bourguet. In 1697, visiting the parish and Chapel Sainte-Anne and Peter Bagarry which covered, Bishop Soanen, Bishop of Senez, then view the latter demolished and ordered its reconstruction; returning twenty-five years later, it finds it rebuilt but feels kinda neat contractor's work.

Trigance and its two churches

Many donations-refunds enjoyed by the Abbey of Saint-Victor reveal the fragmentation of the territory of Trigance, at the end of the X century. There are two churches and a castle. It stands on the tops of Muel (alt. 1213), 2.5 km as the crow flies North of the oppidum of Chastillon, and at an equal distance to the West of the current village. The Summit, oriented North-South, is along a little more 100 m wide at the maximum of 20 very steep Northwest Face Mr., face is cliff. The southwestern slope is steep and steep places. On a slope of less than 100 m, clans its steepest part, many traces of habitat, often divided by platforms. The Summit itself seems to have been defended by a wall very unevenly maintained. All the buildings were dry-stone. In collection of surface, shards of pottery native type, others turned, including an edge with departure from anse. Many fragments of grinding in rhyolite, which a rotating wheel. No debris of tegulae.
Located roughly at halfway between the old oppidum now depopulated and the Castle, the Church Saint-Maxime has been and remains probably the parish territory... Always on the left bank of the Jabron, less than 2 km as the crow flies Southeast of the current village and near the River, the second church, dedicated to our Lady, and the Saint-Julien Church annex, occupy a small Summit (alt. 758 m) then called Le Puy (terris Podit). Probably parish it also, it perhaps serves the population of an another oppidum, of lesser importance, perched a little more to the Southeast, on the crest of cranking (municipality of Comps), between two tributaries of the Jabron: the Valley of the Muntade in the East, and the Valley of Villegrasse in the West. On the Puy, there is today only a single Chapel, which adds two former sponsorships in a curious word: black-Dame-de-Saint-Julien.

Donations and refunds

In 1035, at the same time that half of Bagarry, Guigue assigns (if he dies without an heir) any l'alleu it has in Trigance; two years later, Adalgarde, Arbert de Lançon widow, powerful Lord of the region of Salernes and strain the Pontevès and Al-Spada, gives a quarter of this same "castrum or villa". In 1056, are close relatives of the Lords of Petra Castellana involved: while Pons Trigance and Lambert of vast estates located on the right bank of the Jabron, opposite Notre Dame church and its annex Julien Arbaud "gives or renders" in the presence of his brothers Pons Puverel and Hugues, Bishop of Senez, and "on the advice of his brothers and nephews" :

  • These two churches of le Puy and land juice - Jabron,
  • Saint-Maxime, the parish church of the Castle, and the surrounding land, which, curiously, then, are not on the territory of Trigance, but on "the villa or the Rougon castellum".

Another curiosity: the seigneuries of Trigance and Rougon boundary must pass, the way than the current Commons, on the top of the Castle, that it cuts in advanced like a cake: is this the result of sharing, perhaps stormy, the territory of Trigance Trigance Pons versus other Castellane?
Whatever it in, in 1069, "frightened by the enormity of his crimes", a Goncelemus, we know to what branch attach, gives even to Saint-Victor quarter of the villa and everything that depends on it, in the presence of Mattilde, Dodon son, Adalgarde, Hugue and Alclebert, brothers of the contributor, Odon, Dodon, Campbell and his brother Amic.

The trials and tribulations at Moustiers

The Abbot of Saint-Victor, Bernard of Ruthenian received William, prince of the land of Riez, Lord of Moustiers, with the Church Saint Jean, a vineyard and a few other rights on the territory of the castrum. The precise date of the gift is not known, but we know that this father has served from 1064 to 1079. In July 1089, Pope Grégoire VII confirmed possession of the Priory to Abbey, Priory Gillaume wires were staffed to turn him setting, the following year, all "the Mont Saint-Jean", the hill which dominates the current junction of the road to St. Croix on the provincial road Moustiers-Riez.
In his maneuver to exclude his diocese Moustiers, Augier uses the prestige of the Abbey of Lérins, but also seeks, it seems, to offset the credit of the Abbey of St. Victor, at least on the territory of Moustiers. Thus, after confirming to the Marseilles Abbey possession of the Church 'Saint Jean front Moustiers', and that among others Saint-Cyrice, returns recognition fifteen years later: the same year where Paschal II confirmed in turn that Saint John and. Saint-Cyrice belong to Saint-Victor (23 April 1113), it gives new churches to the Abbey of Lérins, and among those that it has already obtained, called Saint-Jean and Saint-Cyrice. Innocent II will be beautiful, confirming him also the possessions of Saint-Victor (June 18, 1135) Saint-Jean and Saint-Cyrice, this will not prevent the Abbey of Lérins, when cent twenty years later (March 6, 1256) will be a Priory of the parish church Sainte-Marie, he annexed Saint-Cyrice (without more claim, it is true, the Church of St. John), with the blessing of a successor of Augier, coot of quail. Finally, endorsing this compromise in 1259, Pope Alexandre IV admitted the Church Saint-Cyrice among the possessions of Lérins.


Where was it, this church Saint-Cyrice if contested? Already in the 17th century, it did more. Solome, the referring to speaking of the Priory of St. John, says Word in the second part of his "historical memory", when he describes the chapels of Moustiers: Saint-Saturnin, Saint-Pierre, Saint-Clair, Saint-Martin of the Vals, Sainte-Madeleine, Saint-François and Sainte-Anne. Single precision we have, it is its location on the edge of the water: at the same time as the Church of St. John, Guillaume de Riez gave to Saint-Victor fishing right from the Church Saint-Cyrice until mill which is near the "vicidium".

Priory of Saint John

Two hundred years later, the Priory Saint John appears to be independent of the bishopric of Riez. Then its status is changing again; on behalf of the same diocese 1351 decimated provides, under the heading: "Decima monacorum non exemplorum": "Le prieur de Moustiers Saint John, 3 lbs. And when at the beginning of the 16th century, the notables of Moustiers feel that the Saint-Jean Chapel do more appropriately fulfills its mission, it is most Rev. Balthazar Phélipeaux, Bishop of Riez, they make their request: "... The Mayor and consuls of Moustiers said just to your greatness that in the terroir, it has a church or chapel depending on the monastery of Saint-Victor-les-Marseille, under the title of St. John, of which Sir Coulomp, religious of the said order, is prior, with an income of about 200 pounds. And although it is forced to service a mass every Sunday and the year festes, predecessor audit Priory who was condemned by sentence of Messire Clavians, lieutenant at the headquarters of worthy of II April 1541, Commissioner for the execution of the letters patent of Francis I, King of France, given to Fontenebleau 3 December 1540 about repairs to the churches from the spring and recovery of divine service. However this service has been discontinued for many years. What is the cause that said Mayor and consuls have use your size to fill.
"This question, you like it, Monseigneur, order that said prior of St-Jean de Laval said Moustiers will be sentenced to say or do say in the future said chapelle Saint-Jean, a mass every Sunday and festes of the year." "And however that the retribution of the masses and service which has been discontinued for thirty-nine years, will be given by the said prior between hands such Lords Mayor and consuls to be aumonees to the poor needy said Moustiers in being said prior, or else its share as well as law and will be justice". Signed: "Carbonel hair, Mayor and first consul, Baberlier, consul the query itself is not dated, a PostScript says only:"is communicated to the Sieur prior of Saint John of the Val de Moustiers, 1st December '' 1717... Taken the day before, November 30, 1717, an order of the Bishop at Moustiers, who follows his pastoral visit, specifies among the measures taken:...Ban the chapel dedicated to Saint-Clair... Ban the chapel of St. John of the Val... "." The Episcopal decision constitutes a response to the request of the Mayor and of the consuls? Alternatively, on the other hand, the query replicate to the prohibition of the Chapel?

At the outlet of the Gorges du Verdon, a cella in the caves of Saint-Maurin

Parents or followers of Moustiers, Ermengarde and their son stone give the Abbey of St. Victor, in 1062, in addition to what they have in the villa of Moustiers, one eighth of the Château Neuf "built to the place called the long Valley". This donation relates both to the Castle as the field which depends on. It is possible that stone and his family share thus includes throughout the territory of Meyrese, whose stand is since antiquity on the hill that overcomes it.
Almost ' at the mouth of the gorges du Verdon, the right bank floor, in the commune of bed Palud, a dozen caves dug in the Tuff strata, from the edge of the River to the foot of the dizzying Barbin plateau cliff. Above the provincial road No. 952 traversing the landscape in its middle, three large terraces and others of smaller dimensions, are superimposed in the Lecture Hall. Water is flowing in profusion: West, those of the ravine to the Lignan flow from a natural gallery in the cliff; further to the East, those of an abundant source will cascade onto the road.
This place was perhaps dedicated to the worship of a deity of water; "" in any case, most historians identify him with that where, in V "century, Sidonius Apollinaris saw his friend Faustus to withdraw to meditate away from the world". When in 1038, his name occurs for the first time in a deed, it is in the form of "Ford Maurice" ("guado Manoharan"), without the word "saints'", but when, forty years after (1079), Pope Grégoire VII enumerates the possessions of Saint-Victor, he mentions the "cella Sancti Meiresca Mauricii". The implantation of the cella reveals therefore when and how the site, called nowadays Saint-Maurin, was Christianized.
The confirmation of the property of Saint-Victor by Pope Paschal II in 1113, and then by Pope Innocent II in 1135, proves that the cella has belonged to the Abbey at least during 60 years. On the contrary, in 1227, confirmation by Pope Grégoire IX of the temporal from the diocese of Riez, tells us that his Church is now under this bishopric. The monks have therefore withdrawn; but not more than of their coming, we don't know with precision the date, nor the circumstances of their departure. Is there relationship between it and the construction prior to 1189 by Boniface III de Castellane, at the top of the Hill of Meyreste, with a church with Notre Dame for titulary, a castle to control Aiguines path that passes to his foot.

The rain and the treasures of Saint-Maurin

Without replacing the church Notre-Dame de Meyreste, the Church Saint-Maurin will still fill his function at least during the 12th and the half of the 14th century, and probably much longer. According to tradition, after the departure of the monks, peasants, who used the caves to shelter livestock and storing fodder, went on a pilgrimage to this church, in periods of drought, to implore Saint-Maurin and ask for rain. It was built on the edge of the upper terrace and not in one of the well-appointed caves. None of these does, indeed, a regular plan of religious building while their rock type size readily, bench and silos that remain prove that the successive occupants are in are not deprived. In 1631, Simon Bartel, the diocese historian, mentions the existence of a Hermitage and a small church. And a century and a half later, the Cassini map indicates a ruined Church, which cannot be the case of a cave. Clandestine excavations in have updated some of the remains, there are twenty years, simpleton the incompetence of the operators (and their greed: they sought the chimeric treasure of the Templars) have made it now more difficult any serious study.

Three main caves

Three main caves pierce the wall of Tuff overlooking the intermediate terrace, whose twin, to the ground level, communicate with each other. On mura exterior openings leaving two doors in the wall of the left and a window in the right; the passage from one to the other was inside, a natural excavation in the rock wall that separates them. The front wall of the Western cave collapsed, with the exception of the frame in stone doors and a portion of wall supporting. Still in a relatively good state, the front wall of the Eastern cave built in rubble bound with lime, is a rudimentary device. It has benefited from repairs and an elevation. In its centre, a single window, without jamb and lintel, vandals have recently damaged.
It comes to this double cave in a will dated May 11, 1611. The walls (or what there) that we see today on the site, all post-medieval, seem in any case much earlier in the 16th century. Simon Bartel said of this double cave: it "is scary, and pretty much not frequented, due to the violent fracas which is often heard and by which the neighbouring inhabitants are in the use of predict about safely storms or imminent storms".
Carved into the rock that separates the two twin caves externally, a staircase is climbs with difficulty because used it the erosion and the foot of man. It gives access to a third crevices, above and almost between the other two, but smaller they, with a diameter of approximately 3 m, and a natural-shaped apse. In its semi-circular wall, are carved stalls and, in the soil, a perfectly round pond, 1 m in diameter and 25 cm deep. Stairs, stalls and basin, who are they? It's no doubt the Hermitage which speaks Simon Bartel, without specifying which is the hermit.
May 26, 1790, the "general Council of this town of this place the Palu" is concerned to recover the land that the Lord had monopolized.

Saint Maurice became Saint Maurin

Remains to be seen how the name "Saint-Maurice" has turned into "Saint-Maurin". Officer Maurice commanded the Theban legion, which filed the weapons, Abbey (Swiss Valais), when she learned that she was responsible for executing Christians. The Emperor Maximian dispatched troops massacred protesters and their leader (287). The cult of Maurice spread as early as the 4th century. From the 10th century, its name "Mauritius", near "Maurus", he was often depicted in Western iconography in the guise of an African Moor. In the region, the substitution of the toponym Saint-Maurin to Saint-Maurice occurs also in Mont-Justin (canton of Reillane, Provence as in Régusse (canton of Tavernes, Var). A La Palud, two names co-existed until after the middle of the 19th century: S. Bartel in 1636, Cassini in 1780 refers instead under the name of St. Maurice, while the will of Jean II de Demandolx dated 1611 and already cited, a deliberation of the community of May 25, 1617, another of 27 June 1629, and the cadastre of 1638 call it Saint-Maurin. In the 19th century, the specification of the deliberations of the City Council sometimes mentioned Saint-Maurice (e.g. May 6, 1809, June 21, 1812 and March 16, 1856), sometimes Saint-Maurin (for example on 13 June 1831, 10 May 1837 and August 13 of the same year).

paddle boat in the Lake Sainte-Croix
Climbing tree
Pont de Galetas
Pont du Roc

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