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Taxes, debt and economic ruin
Hunger despite new clearing
The testament of the Lord of La Palud, Elzéar de Demandolx (3 October 1635) gives an idea of the crops grown at that time in the region. It left in effect to Marquise de Villeneuve, his wife, in addition to the usufruct of the garden, the orchard, the vineyard Meyreste, the oven from the Castle, the Dovecote Tower, the stables with straw and needed hay for livestock, also a pension of 20 charges of "wheat Anona", 2 loads of oats, 1 load of barley, 1 load of nuts1 setier of almonds, 1 of beans and lentils 1 emine.
The General conditions of agriculture evolve shortly. The plough, spade, sickle remain the usual tools. Grain and sheep still provide farmers the main part of their resources, before the almond, Plum, grape and apiaries. If the breeding of donkeys and mules is limited to transport needs, the flocks of sheep are still numerous and important. They provide the lamb meat, cheese, wool and almost only fertilizers.
Swine raising is abundant clans some villages. The extension of crop continues to be carried out at the expense of the Woods, on the slopes of the mountains, where dry stone walls replace forests. They later reproached communities and their administrators have not curbed deforestation, of having acted with foresight and sacrificed the future to the present.
When Trigance Council decides, in 1651, to dispose of the communal areas, with the agreement of François de Demandolx, sharing between the inhabitants the wasteland between the Valley of the Gjorgjevska and Michelle; Similarly, we divide into lots Siounes glue to the clear. Eleven years later, it is culture cadastral land that are in the enclosure of the mussel and pre de Saint-Julien deffans for the reason simple being sown, they will produce royalties that will pay off the debts. And yet despite these new clearing, wheat is often missing, frost or drought having reduced the harvest. The almost constant threat of food shortage forced the seasonal exodus part of population, relatively too large; each winter, farmers must pick up bulk of hiring and bread in Basse-Provence campaigns.
In 1666, for example, the Council of Trigance must borrow from Claude de Demandolx 20 loads of grain, the community does with not enough to meet the demands of the "isartiers" with the "household" (owner-operators). It is distributed, against surety, to those who have repaid previous loans, and denies it to those who, instead of go earn a living under a warmer sky, spend winter in the village "soubs pre-tested and hope that it will provide them with wheat".
The multiplication of herds of climb and goat
The multiplication of herds is in many places 'defens' of common pasture layout, and their use by the owners of herds in proportion to their properties, the Lord entitled to much the larger share. The need of pastures causes conflicts between the communities: 1671 to 1673, a trial against La Palud and Rougon concerning the right of depaissance in the seductive defens, terroir of La Palud.Si goats do not appreciate the boxwood, they half-truths other forests shoots which they thus jeopardize the renewal. Their depredations are a disaster of a magnitude such as Colbert by order (1690) prohibits their livestock in a large number of villages of Provence: Moustiers, Aiguines, Saint-Jurs, Eoulx, Le Bourguet, Taloire, Trigance, etc. But goats are also a source of report for an economically free region. The Council of Trigance, in the century past (1585), was already a goatherd at the same time that a shepherd for the collective custody of flocks, ensure that big breeders is not wasted on pasture. In 1630, he takes Alexis Cartier, who introduced 15-16 "trenteniers" of goats clans Breis glue and other places in local, at the expense of the community, the antlers and the pastures is not sufficient to "maintenance and food of the bestail of this place". In 1631, he continued the trial against people who, the previous year, under the pretext of "mejarye", had brought "quantified bestail cabrun for rere despaitre the herbaige", because we look again at "practice similar abuse". While the Board of Aiguines also insists on the need to maintain goats, the dairy product being of a great necessity for the inhabitants, Trigance rises against the activities of certain people who lend their names to foreign goatherds, he may now grant only five trenteniers of wood "dass or chevron" per pound cadastral to prohibit foreign herds grazing, and let farmers paying size the way to care for their own, each individual having the right to count the animals breach.
The order of Colbert prohibiting goats doesn't seem to have the intended effect since 1691 Trigance Council threatens Nicolas Régnier, who holds a "mejarie" of goats at chemin de Châteaudouble and causing "great damage" to the oak and wood, of denouncing him if he brought out 'without long delay' his flock of the territory. 1703. still, the Council continues Pierre Cauvin, the village blacksmith, for having "accommodated his name" Giraud, berger of Salernes,. which introduced fraudulently in the defens three trenteniers and a half goats; In addition, it makes estimating the damage by experts and seizes of the herd. In 1719, Aiguines Council asked the Parliament permission to hold goats by highlighting that the territory is vast and that trees can be used in the Royal galleys.
The protection of forests
Generally, Lords and communities try to keep a part of forests in "defended", which they reserve products (wood, twigs, acorns, leaves to fertilizer, fungi) or that they arrentent. In 1627, the Council of Trigance gives power to its consuls sell glandage; in case they could sell the mussel glandage at a price of ECU 90 of 3 books, will abandon the harvest inhabitants, each House can send three people, except to pay a "sezain" per person and more; one of the steps of Auvers will be sold also. Then it will be used to estimate by Commissioners, at the beginning of the season, the amount of acorns produced by the defens and the number of pigs that can introduce; in 1694, for example, auditors will conclude that "it may fatten eighty beasts" and the Council will decide on "relarjor (release) the swine of the place" at the rate of ecu per head, and those of foreigners in the more Offerors. Already, in the middle of the previous century (June 30, 1555), a judgment of Parliament had attempted to prohibit the cutting of trees and clearing the entire territory of Provence. Trigance, in 1624, the Council barred from "cut some roures (oak) at the foot" in the communal wood, just fine.Because needles, with Castellane and Moustiers, one of the localities where people work in the round wood of boxwood, very hard, for burning and various books; but it is also used for heating, lime, the tuileries kilns. The leaves of the shrub, too bitter to goats, serve as manure, litter and give excellent ash.
The ravages of erosion in Castellane and la Palud
It is from the 17th century, according to experts, dating back the spread and extent of torrential erosion in Haute-Provence; They explain the cause: soil of a great fragility of the climate regime submitted to alternating drought and torrential rain, has lost its natural protection due to intensive cultivation of land (operation which, Furthermore, requires the removal) and the excessive exploitation of the Woods and pastures.
In previous centuries, it is true, formidable floods ravaged the banks of the Verdon and smaller torrents: as early as the second half of the 15th century, these excesses have acquired a frequency and violence that already into scourge, as evidenced by the fate of Castellane. To protect the city, was built, with large pieces of wood, boxes that are filled with stones. In 1471, the Verdon WINS one of these chests that had cost 300 florins, and demolishes the end of the bridge that is located to the rock. Completely redone two years later, the trunk cannot prevent, the following year, the flooding of a whole district of the city. The Commission recognizes that if it raises no new protections, the walls may crumble. In the years that followed, despite the ingenious and expensive work, the Verdon continues its clevastations. In 1485, the prior of Vergons proposes to construct, at its own expense, a new safe wood on the Bank, provided that the town of Castellane is responsible for filling with stones. The Council welcomes this offer with gratitude... "In 1551 our [Verdon] river overflowed with so much abundance that could touch the top of the bridge; It flooded throughout the campaign, won almost all of the dike, fills houses and streets of gravel, and porta up to the place of the Augustinians. Aiguines bridge there lost two of its arcades; Quinson was fully covered, and the parapets were unable to withstand the force of the water."
Measures in la Palud
At the end of the 16th century, the floods are increasing and their ravages are increasing. Thus La Palud undergoes in turn damage: the Tauliere and Bourbon with disproportionately grossi torrents, their waves invade the village, win the backyard of the castle walls and deteriorating homes flooded. Some time after, the Council deliberates on the topic "major havoc and large overhangs the waters caused by rainfall", in the spring of 1666, havoc due "to the clearing of the slopes on which were planted wheat". It decided, in agreement with the Lord Louis de Demandolx, that represented at this meeting his uncle Gaspard, to prohibit any new clearing of the slopes of Barbin and oppose anything that may contribute to swell the Tauliere, Bourbon and le Brusquet torrents. It shall reinstate old ways not respected and accurate again the limits of the pinewood of Barbin, that trace a transaction date of 1605, but forgotten for 60 years.
Bridges and land taken away at Moustiers..
It was at Moustiers that erosion has caused the time probably the most spectacular disaster in the region. Torrent, which flows through the town, the devastated repeatedly at the end of the Bishop, and at the beginning of the 16th century. In 1683, it overflows with such violence that it carries, on its right bank, between the two bridges, the edge of the Baumettes district, with two grain mills, the chapel of the white penitents and half of the former cemetery. In 1692, the great bridge, as well as the ramparts that protect and a part of the square where it leads on the right bank, collapsing in turn in the torrent grew heavy rains. This place was decorated with a copious fountain, a large laundry and large trees where it walked around the largest hot. It was considered to be the most beautiful of Provence. The part that still shape today place cutlery. Since the disaster, this quarter, which ends in drop above the Town Hall, is called "Fondue", i.e. "the degraded. In 1702, new flooding, further destruction of land and buildings by the torrent. New reconstruction by the mousterian. These, it is true, are more stubbornness to wisdom: to protect the banks, they have reinforced them with trunks of oak trees which they have stripped the slopes of the mountain, thus increasing the strength of the water.
...And in Trigance
In Trigance, Jabron carries on several occasions the two bridges that cross it and the lands that border it. In 1636, the Council voted a tax of a setier by home for repair of the bridge damaged "by great waters overflow". In 1642, a flood covered gravel riparian lands. To repair the destruction, the Commission proposes the same, year to Jacques Auteville and Jean Loye, cede them the terrain they will be cleaned, and provide them with the necessary wood; to the opposition of the owners, it takes auction repairs the following year, and then announces that the reclaimed land will be exempt from any tax for five years; but the case drags. It was until four years after he decided to sell at auction, before lieutenant j., "flooded metalled faisses", as well as the rest of the iscles not yet sold. In 1651, he repaired the bridge, damaged by a new flood, which won also the bridge of Carajuan, on the path of Trigance in Rougon, and further, that of Tusset linking the village of Rougon to part of its territory lying on the left bank. In 1692, the Ark is again dislocated and threatens to collapse if one remedy. The Council accepts the offer of Honoré Dauteville, Alexis Lambert and others, who want, provided that the community provide wood, increase the Arch of the bridge, which is "a very great convenience". Unnecessary sentence two years later, the bridge is completely ruined.
Damage in the 17th century
In 1703, is Verdon that partly demolished the Carejuan bridge, near the confluence of the Jabron. Trigance inhabitants are not at the end of their sentences, throughout the 17th century torrential erosion will continue its toll: in 1702, the rains have stopped falling 15, 16 and 17 October. the Jabron overflow and other streams have led good land, scarce, and caused the ruin of cultural venues. Counsel prepare a brief for the intendant, prosecutors of the country or any other influential people in order to obtain "some relief of the large loads including this poor community is overwhelmed".
In 1740, the rains, which have damaged once more the two bridges built on the Jabron, resulted in cropland or them were "engraved". Before the extent of the damage, the Council asked Jacques Gay, notary public at Comps, and Jean ' ferret, bourgeois of La Palud, to draw up a new report for prosecutors of the country. Because of the urgency to restore communications with the mill and the other side of the River, it engages workers and cut trees in the mussel grazing to raise without delay the Sautet bridge. Yet to rebuild the main deck: in 1755, the second consul, Pierre Rouvier, surgeon, before the Assembly of the viguerie in Draguignan, exposes the sad state in which is located the community as a result of the storms that have come and gone for fifteen years, since, without ever having received assistance from the viguerie, it must maintain the grand Riez by Rougon road, and those of Castellane by Le Bourguet and Comps. He managed to get this time reimbursement of expenditure that will lead to the reconstruction of the bridge; work all the more urgent the largest part of the village, even the mill property, lie on the other side "and that since the removal of the said bridge, drowned world".
An infinite number of torrents
In 1698, the intendant of Provence will be to investigate large clans 600 towns and villages of Provence for a "reaflouagement", i.e. of a new distribution of tax burden. This survey gives us a precise idea of the devastation caused erosion in the region:
- At Moustiers, whose local is divided into three parts: the Valley, plain, mountain, it is this which is still the most proven: "it was once intended for depaitre cattle, but since poverty of household gave rise to the linen of this trade, and farmers became miserable (sic) enjoyed themselves to clear some portions of the area for a harvest or two, because that can barely find the terroir to cover the seeds and the underside is rock bright, rain have all carried away and caused major gullies to neighbouring land of bastides, thus ruining the hope and each other. This soil contains no clean place even for menus and large cattle grazing, clearing of the mountain completely ruined what could serve them".
- "Châteauneuf is crossed by an infinite number of torrents: this is just a sequence of gullies and valleys of space in space"; clearing sacked it to the point that already at that time, it remains more than the discovery rock; Since "twenty-two years, the country has died of quint of its value", the once thriving land can no longer wear culture, and yet they pay as much taxes: "they are subject to the same size for a value that no longer exists";
- To Majastres, terroir "is almost anything without culture, lack of men and means to grow, having fifteen are worth or torrents without water, with no watering."
- Saint-Jurs, 'twenty valleys and very deep and rapid torrents when river waters overflow' destroy the work of men, swept rocks but can turn any mill;
- Taulanne, where scattered eleven barns and bastides, properties of residents of Castellane, "all places are filled valleys and gullies";
- In Chasteuil, Verdon won the District of Peyre-Board and one that extends between Villars-Brandis and Rougon, "so that it has more than rocks, stones";
- At Taloire, all the slopes are bare, filled with ravines causing great damage as soon as fall a little rainfall;
- On the mountain of the Tang, located between La Garde, Soleihas and Demandolx, the Lord "a custom to allow clearing the defens, for an annuity fixed amicably"; What are these clearings, write the investigators, "which depopulated mountain and fact that stormwater and snow took the track ensure that grasslands are greatly diminished".
As early as 1684, is to say fourteen years prior to this survey, Aiguines Board seeking a reduction of the affouagement. The arguments that he advanced to justify this request: sterility of territory ravaged by river water but devoid of irrigation water, land grabs by the Lords, decrease in the value of the land, could be invoked as reasons by all communities in the region. This intensive Woods and pastures, which eventually scraped to the bone mountains and ruin an already poor nature area, is explained by the need to live even more obvious as those diffi cult imposed by nature adds, for peasants, Royal and Lordly constraints which, of course, raise their part protests and disputes.
Royal taxation: an unfair distribution of loads
Taxes collected in Provence (i.e. size, although it is never designated under this name in the enumeration of the communal charges) obviously cover the province-specific expenses. The death of Mazarin, Louis XIV began his personal reign; its policy of glory translates into grandiose buildings and lavish parties, the nobility of the Kingdom participating in the luxury of Versailles; but also by a succession of wars which will deplete national finance. The Provencal assemblies divided the amount of taxation between communities in proportion to their number of lights, or "affouagement". These, in turn, are required in forms that suit them: Awards, taxes on foodstuffs or food samples in nature, but the main source of tax remains the size, which strike as registered property: the tax quota is divided between people using the cadastre, estimate of land. The efforts of communities to balance their budget are constantly challenged by Royal taxation that worsens rapidly in the last decades of the 16th century.
Permanent deficit, the administration still invents new ways to get money: the "tenth", created in 1710 by Louis XIV, is deleted in 1717, restored 1733 and abolished in 1737, and then risen of 1741 in 1749. The King has established in 1692 an office of Mayor is sold to the highest bidder. Deleted in 1722, this office is restored a few months later.
In addition to these constraints of the Royal administration, feudal constraints. Among the assets have the nobles, each enjoy a tax exemption because they are of noble origin, others should be registered because, transferred by private individuals, they have retained their commoner character. By challenging the size on their commoners property through their influence, they arrive frequently to evade the encadastrement - nobles, always short of money them too, so increase the tax burden of the other taxable. Where quarrel with the communities. As Honoré de Raymond to Eoulx in 1649, as Joseph de Gauthier in Aiguines in 1691, the Lord of La Palud refuses to pay its roturieres land size and pay no size for its livestock. But more, he tries all kinds of disputes to his subjects: he sold the timber from forests and thus deprives the inhabitants of its use; denied them the right to build presses for oil and grapes; defends them inoculate gastes land and Park sheep in the caves of Saint-Maurin; captured much land on which they have right to grazing, clearing them and then condemns them access. Finally forbidden them to build lofts; probably isn't the only one to do so since it will take an order to give "to the inhabitants of Provence right to have dovecotes in form and construction they find good" (1736). At a trial, which will finish only shortly before the Revolution, the community lawyer pleads before the Court of Aix: "truly, he [the Lord Louis Demandolx - La Palud' is not without good wanting make unnecessary all transactions contain favourable for these poor people he wants to oppress.]" But finally, how can he prevent that they run by them since he so rigorously asserts for him. The sieur de La Palud believes suffice him to speak for raw being?" (1715).
Charges to the clergy
There are also fees payable to the clergy. A Puglia (register of the property and benefits) of the bishopric of Riez identifies, in 1730, the ecclesiastical revenues produced by the parish of Châteauneuf; the Abbey of Montmajour holds clans rather than rights that it lists clans this document, at the same time as those of the parish priest and Bishop.
Finally, housing and caring for the people of war weigh more and more on the population: 1685 to 1695, military spending will increase tenfold. And the slump empire with the political faults of Louis XIV. Moon of the most serious, the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685), which was greeted with enthusiasm by the predominantly Catholic nation and the clergy who stood against the freedom of conscience, still impoverished French provinces, causing the massive emigration of protestants. On the other hand, refugees are going to be an element of prosperity for the countries giving them asylum.
Ultimately, when Louis XIV will complete her reign (1715) will remain wholly 800000 pounds in funds while public debt will amount to nearly 3 billion pounds. His great grandson, who will succeed him under the name of Louis XV, will have only five years. The Duke Philippe d ' Orléans, who will assume the Regency, will attempt to redress the financial situation: it will call the Scotsman John Law, who has devised a system in which the State becomes at the same time banker for issuing tickets, and shopping to grow capital which he is the depositary. For so resourceful it may be, the lack of prudence and patience in its application, system will result in bankruptcy.
The economy of ceramics
There is little industry and little crafts in our villages, sometimes a tile factory, often a forge, home weaving hemp does that keep; a glassware does Estelle; tanneries are just beginning to settle. Single table pottery is expanding. Ceramic craft activity is probably older in the region than believed. As early as 1490, a Lord to concede the right to extract a La Palud Potter clay against royalties in cash, to which was added the provision in dishes of the Castle; nine years later, the same Lord passes a transaction for a period of ten years with another craftsman: it grants him the right to buy land but by prescribing, in particular, to work four towers in La Palud at least during the summer. and personally interested in ceramics, he reserves two "numbers" of pottery cooked batch.
The earthenware of Moustiers and ceramics in la Palud
If they have not fallen into oblivion, most production centres which, in the last centuries, have provided the Provence of common dishes remain poorly known. This is the case of Moustiers-Sainte-Marie and more yet from the neighbouring village, La Palud-sur-Verdon.
Before to learn the technique of the earthenware that will make their renowned, 'potters land' of Moustiers provided quantity of these rustic ceramics. Although having spread in Basse-Provence they are fifteen in activity in the middle of the 16th century. We do not know them and ignore almost all structures, patterns and volumes of their productions. However, the name of nine of them who in 1659, send to La Palud a delegation we ask the Lord for renewal, for finance, of the authorization of "do pull in and out of the terroir of the said land for the use of the said master-potters Palud during the time of five years '... This clay, mix it that they retrieve the Combes, towards the Valley of Angouire, Moustiers? Or will they use it alone? And in this case, how to distinguish terrailles of Moustiers and those of La Palud today? Because, at the same time, this village, too, continues to produce ceramics and account several potters, but no more here than there, no workshop does sign his pieces without exception.
To further complicate the identification of products, sometimes marketing it uses simultaneously and in the same area, the same merchants. In March 1664, eleven "mestres potters land from the town of Moustiers" and four "mestres instead of La Palud potters' spend together a contract for exclusive sale with three traders.
Which probably means that, in the workshops two neighbouring centres, craftsmen's talent "charge" ceramics of comparable quality.
There are thus three main periods in the invoice of the old tiles manufactured at Moustiers:
- One of the great dishes so-called "of hunting" because they provide sets to topics related to this activity, either borrowed from the bible of Sacy often imitated the Italian decorator Tempesta. The set is painted in blue monochrome. It is earthenware Pierre I de Clerissy and his pupils.
- His son Antoine, who rediscovers the fine executions with which the painter Bérain triumphed in the tapestry, and the Bill will extend later in the 17th century. However, generally blue camaieu, earthenware may be painted in other colours from 1738, when Antoine succeeds to surprise the secret of Olerys.
- That Joseph Olerys brand personality. Now polychrome and reduced dimensions, the earthenware of Moustiers are decorated with "grotesque" or exotic subjects.
"This terracotta which tinte so finely is made of fired clay, first, careers of Combes, near Moustiers, then Marzol, further, to 5 km, on the road to Aiguines. Production is increasing, the quarries will run out and it will until Saint-Appolinaire-de-Puimoisson fetch the Earth; one think Similarly, around 1745, take it to the 'Neighborhood' of Vaumalle, in front of La Palud; as it will take the transport mules back and cross the Verdon, the project will be bold enough".
The ruinous end of reign of Louis XIV
The political, social and religious life in the villages
The management of Municipal Affairs is based on a base of democratic inspiration, obviously given the State of mind at the time. Municipal institutions consist of a Council of "notable". Consuls, captains, Treasurer, Councillors are elected more often by an electoral college limited, either co-opted by outgoing Councillors. They are therefore chosen from the richest people... or less poor. Some can read and write; education is in its infancy in the region: Moustiers, Castellane, Aiguines, Trigance and some other places.
Daily life flows to the rhythm of the seasons and the religious celebrations, uniform, without opening. Any fact the proportions of an event, the slightest grievance becomes an excuse to chicane. A country divided by the nature in a series of closed compartments, with few bridges to cross streams, paths, non-existent or poor condition predisposes to rivalries, parochial patriotism.
Quarrels of villages
The animosity between the inhabitants of La Palud and Rougon lasted long; the Revolution will not erase it completely. Alumni have repeatedly made the story of the quarrels between the young people of the two countries, even after 1789. The population of villages mutually give themselves nicknames who testify under irony and derision, of misery suffered during centuries: the inhabitants of La Palud call those Rougon, originally "Acorn eaters", because the area around this village are more Oaks and rocky to wheat; the inhabitants of Rougon give to those of La Palud name "black bellies", because they are too impecunious for heating other than with a bad wood who smokes.
Finally, Rougon and La Palud locals say people from Moustiers "poor but proud, lazy but gourmands, of flour on the figure but the sound in the belly," because residents of this small town, under a beautiful appearance, arrive badly to hide their indigence. Thus the isolation imposed by nature, which does not prevent the conjunction of major interests, secretes however hostility between the disadvantaged the same misfortune should have closer, and ensures the sustainability of the institutional structure. Folded in its villages of the mountain, the population lives ignored, if it is despised by those who live in castles and cities. Pierre Gassendi, Provost of the chapter of worthy and learned mathematician, describes "guyots" and "wild" men, voice hoarse, the Herculean strength, refractory trimmings and entertainment. Although cartoonish, the portrait is not fake.
The mountain farmers have other means of training the Church and liturgical ceremonies. Begun in the previous century, the religious revival after the bloody interlude of the wars of religion is gaining momentum despite the low spiritual level and lack of education of the clergy. It happens that a conflict between the community to its cure, but this conflict reflects the faith of the people who deplore the lack of zeal of the priest.
Aiguines and Moustiers
Aiguines, the community asked in 1697 to the Bishop of Riez to force Thomas, vicar (with whom it is in trial about his housing) to maintain a second priest, one being insufficient due to the extent of the territory, and many people missing Sunday mass ".
If at Moustiers prior Pierre des Prés rebuilt the chancel of the parish church during the 14th century, one of the causes of conflict between parishioners and their parish priest is negligence that sometimes puts this one to maintain the place of worship. In 1628, the community of Rougon suing Sir Balthazar Moullinguet, "Canon and prebendary prior of Rougon", to undertake repairs to the Church prescribed by the Bishop of would be. In 1660, the consuls of Aiguines complain to the Bishop of Riez of what the vicar and the capiscol did not make necessary repairs to the Church. In 1667, the Council of Trigance is on trial with the prior because the Church is in a decay as can barely there say the mass, and this by the negligence of the Priors who don't care than to collect their annuities.
Among the many places of pilgrimage, the chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Beauvoir, that celebrates the prior installed by the Abbey of Lérins at Moustiers, is busy; in 1346 and 1364, Pope Clement VI and urban V granted indulgences to those who visit, "particularly convinced by credible assurances", says the second".
The brotherhoods animate the parish life. The Council of Trigance authorize in 1630 the vicar to erect a confraternity of the Holy Rosary at the altar of our Lady of the parish church, to involve the faithful in "indulgences and well-facts" attached thereto. The village counts in 1645 six brotherhoods: Corpus Christi, Notre-Dame, Saint-Michel and Saint-Antoine "which are all seniority in the Church" Parish, the Holy Spirit and Saint-Roch, which will rank in their religeuse special. Yet six years later, the Commission concedes the Saint-Roch Chapel to the brotherhood of the white Penitents, most of the inhabitants dedicated to the service of God wish to establish with the approval of the Bishop. Moustiers, des Pénitents blancs in addition have two chapels: St. Clair and St. Pierre (both located near the Angouire bridge), and the Penitents gray, called also "Bourras" name their color of homespun dress, the chapel Sainte-Brigitte; on April 3, 1642 established a "brotherhood" of n.. - de - Beauvoir, then those seniors of purgatory (1672), the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Spirit.
Penitents bustled into the smaller villages. The brotherhood of the Holy Sacrament organizes the Catechisms, improve handling during offices and maintenance of churches, encourages assistance works, fight against drunkenness and bad manners. It is evidence against the protestants in an implacable hostility but its "secret police", so formidable in major urban centres, probably did not present the same clans rural activity. It also organizes festivities on the occasion of religious festivals. At La Palud, the brotherhood of the Holy Spirit elects 3 priors and prioresses 3: k Thursday before Pentecost, we kill an ox that is milk Cook in three
large cauldrons, common home; It kneads from 9 to 10 loads of wheat; then it prompts to sound of Horn the inhabitants to come taste the wine of the Holy Spirit. The priest blesses the wine and other foods; the Festival lasts 3 days.
In Trigance, the Council cut ECU the annuity he is used to the brotherhoods, and pours the youth to buy powder. The money raised on the occasion of the fêtes is used to pay the festivities which gives rise the feast of Saint-Roch, and which must be pretty noisy since in 1634, the Board shall appoint a captain "to avoid debates and quarrels", to "celebrate said police". It is the Saint-Roch brotherhood which organizes these happy events. In 1667, the Council decides to buy, with the product of the scrambles and a 'fair' price, twelve muskets that the consuls of Comps have lent, and that they intend to sell.
Witchcraft, torture and burning at Aix: the case of the young Madeleine Demanldox-la-Palud (1611)
A very sad affair that takes place in Marseille with protagonists for a cure born around 1575, in Beauvezer in the diocese of Senez, and young Madelaine Demandolx, daughter of Antoine de Demandolx, founder of the branch of Marseille Demandolx, and niece of Jean II, Lord of La Palud. It sheds a cruel light the right-of-way in which superstition holds the spirits of this time.
Louis Gaufridi was aged only a dozen years when one of his uncles, curé de Pourrières (near Saint-Maximim) who has a weakness for Alchemy and the occult sciences, took charge of his education and did come close to it. A nice physics, great intelligence, Gaufridi completed his studies in Marseille, received the orders and, aged 26, was appointed parish priest of the Church of the Accoules, always in Marseille. Soon the Abbot falls for one of his parishioners, Madelaine de Demanclolx-sixteen-year-old, managed to overcome his scruples and seduce her. But remorse grabs the girl, lost his reason; "convulsive movements, of the horrendous contortions" wiggle his body.
Brought to the Sainte Baume, it is exorcized by Fr. Sébatienn Michaclis, Inquisitor of Avignon and prior of the convent of the brothers preachers de Saint-Maximen. Told that it is Beelzebub himself that owned it through Gaufridi and made her "Princess of the wizards in the land of Provence". To combat the devil, is come from men who wield halberds during the ruqyah; one of them waving a sword in the chimney against invisible magicians who can drop through the conduit. In the Archdiocese of Aix, before the horrified judges, young Madelaine engages in erotic Follies during his interrogation. Arrested and transferred him also to Aix, Gaufridi was tortured and eventually recognize sorcerer: he sold his body and his soul to the devil in Exchange for the donation to be followed by all women.
Comes the trial: the president of the Parliament of Provence, Guillaume du Vair, declares guilty Gaufridi's "kidnapping, seduction, magic, witchcraft, and other abominations" (April 30, 1611). The cheers of the audience, the Court condemned him to be dragged through all the junctions of the city and to the Church of Saint-Sauveur to make amends, head and bare feet, the rope to the neck, a torch in hand, then to be burned bright, his ashes to be scattered to the wind. Madelaine La Palud Demandolx is acquitted, but must remove the fury of the crowd that persists as a witch, while it is probably only a sick, hysteria explaining the entire case. The last act of the drama takes place on the square of preachers, before a hungry multitude, which invaded up trees to better see the bonfire. In the General nervousness and panic, a child falls and kills himself, the chevalier de Montouroux assassinates a gentleman and hurts of a sudden stab a girl who attends the execution. After the burning of Gaufridi, the witch hunt develops. Seventeen people are accused in Marseille. In Aix, believing themselves themselves possessed of the devil, the Sisters of St. Clair engaged in obscene dances. The former parish priest of the Accoules then knows a popular reputation and becomes 'badge magician'. "
Madelaine, meanwhile, will hardly cease to be subject to the insults of his entourage and its neighbours, despite the help of a few of his parents and his religious advisers. Thus, in 1653, she lives, very withdrawn, in a campaign called make it Obscure to the neighborhood Saint-Barthélemy, outside Marseille. Public malignancy forced him to seek refuge in Aix. She donated the House she just leave to Trinitarian nuns that recognition, a little later add the name of La Palud to the convent they build first at the location of the campaign, and then in a neighborhood more closer to the city. This is the origin of the name of the Church and the rue de La Palud current, in Marseille. She will end her life, almost octogenarian, at Châteauvieux, where it will have collected his cousin Françoise Gombert, widow of Claude de Demandolx, seigneur de Demandolx and Châteauvieux. Goes off almost sixty years after the horrible end of the father Gaufridi (December 20, 1670) and will be buried in the parish church, before the altar of the Rosary.
Around the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685)
In 1672, Scipio Brown of Castellane, Lord of Rougon and quail, a lent tribute to these two seigneuries. He is nephew of Pierre Brun de Castellane and of Marguerite de Demandolx-Trigance. He was married (May 15, 1655) with Judith, daughter of Corneille Legouche, coseigneur of Saint-etienne-les-Orgues (arrondissement of Forcalquier) and of fire Bourdin Anne. He mostly lives in Manosque, that his wife preferred the austere village of Rougon, and there was widowed after having two daughters as well as three sons, which only survives the eldest, Isaac. It belongs to the reformed religion. Elsewhere, it is probably huguenot from father to son, in Brun de Castellane: the wars of religion were not started in Provence by the assault gave Catholics (1559) in the home from a grandfather of Scipio, Castellane?
The "huguenot" term is, originally a nickname used derisively to describe the followers of the "R.P.R." (So-called reformed religion). These poorly tolerated by people, are faced with the hostility of the authorities. Since 1670, the Parliament of Aix takes all excuses to track down pastoralists, restrict the exercise of worship and carry out a sneaky repression. The ranks of protestants lightens, the most numerous abjurant, the other siblings.
Despite the fear of perpetual galleys promised to those who attempt to seek refuge abroad, Scipio decided to emigrate. To hide his escape, he announces that he will stay at quail. It indeed takes the path, to Rougon a stop long enough to give the community time to vote a donation to his son Isaac, then wins quail, where he remained for three weeks, enough to treat individual cases with his notary. Finally, through the Valley little frequented the Estéron he crosses the border of the Kingdom, arrives in the County of Nice continued to Turin and eventually settle in Lausanne. Venus and the Cévennes Vivarais, many believers there preceded him. Others will join it when the revocation of the edict of Nantes (October 17, 1685) opens an era of persecution reported: nothing that for Provence, despite the surveillance of borders, 1 400 to 1500 protestants reach flee the dragonnades and galleys.
A statement by the King (2 December 1 (189) prescribed distribution of the property of the exiles to their closest relatives remained or became Catholic. Accordingly, by order of the Parliament of Aix (11 June 1 (190), the property of Scipio, in particular the seigneuries of Rougon and quail, are vested in his sister, Elisabeth Brown of Castellane, married to Grasse at the King's Adviser, Jean Tardivy (which lends tribute for these seigneuries in 1698), and the property of his deceased wife to her sister)Anne de Legouche, wife of a general counsel to the Parliament of the Dauphiné, André de Roland.
Through the provisions that he knew how to take before his departure, Scipio knows no physical gene. Despite everything, life is not tender for him: in 16193, he expressed to his nearby residences in the Kingdom, the death of one of his daughters, and his son Isaac. Itself will turn off in Lausanne to 1712. In the meantime will unfold a drama which will only be completed until several months after his death.
The strange story of Isaac de Caille
In 1699, in Toulon, a Carpenter originally from Manosque, Pierre Amphoux, says the Violette, recognizes in the person of a soldier, who is called Mège, the son of Scipio Brun de Castellane, his former Lord. The soldier admits actually be Isaac of quail. He says he fled to Lausanne to escape ill-treatment of a father whose exile exacerbates the irascibility and fanaticism. He formally abjured the reformed religion and is baptized by taking the Catholic name of André Entieverges. Soon Roland and Tardivy families who for nine years, enjoy their old exiled parent property, together against this unexpected nephew of the loads they think overwhelming, do incarcerate to Toulon prison and get a statement in which he confirmed the death of his son, in Vevey, February 16, 1696 of Scipio. But people of the people and even the nobility are done and cause for the one who said Isaac. For example Ms. de Saint-Jurs. One day in 1697, ensures it, Anne Legouche, wife of general counsel André de Roland, he told Grenoble that his nephew wanted to return to France and that the opposition of his father forced him to flee illegally. Moreover, Earl Brown of Castellane is unable to send the death certificate of his son. His conduct would not be dictated by religious sectarianism and the fury to see Isaac escape him and recant?
Passions ignite; Isolle cures, quail, and Taxil, Rougon, are among the most eager champions of Isaac. It is true that, while Scipio, huguenot uncompromising, having never wanted anything receive priests, had abandoned the seigneurial dues he had been entitled to collect, Tardivy demand fiercely and even won the Parliament a trial against the officiating priests. Isolle and Taxil stimulate from the pulpit the zeal of their flock for the son of their former Lord, stick posters at intersections and at the door of the churches. The Attorney for Roland revenge ébruitant adventure that Taxil would have had with the wife of Perier, who has a Rougon mill. The story somewhat discredits the serving of the village, as the parish priest of La Palud, Bernard, must replace, but does not refresh the zeal of those who believe in the return of Isaac.
Support of the population
The joy of the audience broke out when the case coming before the Parliament of Aix, after one hundred twenty hearings, the accused is legally recognized son of Scipio Brun de Castellane and Judith Legouche (July 14, 1707). All the property of his emigrant parents are surrendered and awarded damages. The families of Roland and Tardivy are sentenced to pay the costs. The new Lord immediately married Toulon, with Miss Serry, a young girl who had hired her jewelry to help in his prison. Then he will visit its fields of Rougon and quail.
But from September onwards, Roland presents a request for appeal to the King's Council, based on the testimony of Honorade alley, Martigues. Isaac readily acknowledges to be linked with this woman, of suspicious manners, widow of a soldier of Navy, Pierre Mège, embedded as a rower on a galley of Marseille (1691) and disappeared without trace. Isaac took his bed and his marital status until the day where the Carpenter of Manosque, then many other people have recognized him as the son of the former Lord of Rougon and quail. Honorade alley, on the contrary, maintains that it is the real Pierre Mège, with whom she was married in 1686, and asked that his second marriage is broken.
By a signed award of the King at Fontainebleau, the Council actually breaks the judgment of Aix and returns the trial before the parlement of Paris. A hypothesis would explain, insinuates, the obscurity of this case: Pierre Mège would be born to a mother who was servant, some time, Brun de Castellane, and Scipio would not have been so Puritan it the lutinât. Likeness Pierre Mège would have had very naturally with Isaac would have given him the idea of the scam. It could not lead very far without the rumor of the Provençal crowd, to the imagination overheated as well known, is not in the capital.
On it, new intervention of Scipio, near expire in Lausanne, certifying once more than one who will appear before the Parlement of Paris is an impostor. So a judgment said the alleged son of Brun de Castellane are and have always been only Pierre Mège (17 March 1712). Suddenly, that has nothing, is the subject of new prosecution because of his bigamy. He is imprisoned in the Conciergerie in Paris; a third trial will begin. But while everyone else abandoned him, his wife, Madeleine Serry, he keeps his confidence and proclaimed himself opponent at the judgment of Paris, which suspends the proceedings and still leaves a chance to the enigmatic man to establish his true identity. Alas! At this time, one that ensures be Isaac of quail died in prison.
In any case, those who subsequently will study this matter to try to unravel the mystery, will conclude in the Sham of Pierre Mège.
Whatever it is, the Tardivy do not keep the legacy of Scipio: after new tribute in 1719 and 1730, they sell the fief of Rougon in 1732 at the Abbey of Lérins (which will pay tribute to turn in 1736 to this fief) and in 1735, interact with Théas de Villeneuve, Andon, Lord, that quail against Thorenc.
Mademoiselle la Palud and "maker of gold" (1705)
One of the six daughters of Louis de Demandolx - La Palud and Diane de Blacas of Aups had the opportunity this day of August 29, 1705, to prove that it was not cool.
To understand an extraordinary episode, it must first be remembered that in th
- From pre-Roman period to IXth century
- Appearance of castles and decadence of the central power
- Saint-Victor, Lérins et Montmajour
- Wars in Provence and Templars
- Policies, Boniface V and VI elements
- Internal wars and State of the region in the 15th century
- Richness of the peasant and Provençal nation
- Consequences of the wars of religion
- The administration and the public service of the Verdon
- The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon
- Pending the abolition of the privileges of the lords of Verdon
- History of Verdon
- Memoirs of Verdon Gorge
- Once upon a time the Verdon
- Verdon Natural Regional Park
- Visit the Verdon Gorge