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The administration and the public service of the Verdon

The administration of the community

The Lord in the 18th century

In Aix, capital policy, as in Marseille, economic capital of Provence, a whole opulent society leads a life of splendour, in mansions we still admire. The new aristocracy of trading has expanded its field of action to the Americas (from 1719) and up to the Indian Ocean by road from Cape Town (since 1769). The nobility has seen decline its political prerogatives. After deletion for nearly a century, its general assemblies were restored only in 1700, but require authorization and held in the presence of the intendant. In fact, as at Versailles, it changed its character: the traditional Provençal Knight has given way to the aristocrat socialite, ceremonial and domesticated by the power, all the more intransigent on its privileges and its distinctions that with the proliferation of sales of securities, its "order" is is swollen and devalued noble quality.

A turning point for the nobility

Number of seigneurs de Haute-Provence now want to share the vanities of high society and practice the art of information in Aix, Marseille, Paris, or in any other major city. Jean-Antoine de Gautier, Lord of Aiguines, which already appeared in 1667 one of the consuls of the city of Aix, the last Lord of La Palud, Pierre-Louis de Demandolx, that will be (in 1787-1788) first consul of that city on the eve of the Revolution, they are hardly staying in their castles lost in the mountains and too austere for the likes of the century. But to support lifestyle and pageantry impose their positions of honour, they need lot of money. As they lofty operations of trade or industry, they often other ways to get that requiring ever stronger charges of their subjects and dismembering their own Lordships: enriched traders claim to assume a title of nobility by buying pieces of noble land.
By his boastful claims and unreasonable demands, the nobility combines against it the average commoner bourgeoisie in the cities and the petite bourgeoisie of peasant villages. Le Bourguet, the role of the tax imposed by individual (capitalion) includes a class of bourgeois number 7 for a community of 51 imposed; These landlords are probably large household, more refined life train, using a farm domesticity to exploit their lands, without doubt the literate only in the village. This bourgeoisie peasant and, in cities, shopping and heads of factories, holds the real economic power, and refuses to "crawl before quantities"; in Draguignan, at a meeting, one of its members protested vividly against the "contempt", whose nobility overwhelms those who do not belong to him.

Municipal Council and consuls defending the right to life for the majority of the population

Long before the Revolution, the area that would become the Basses-Alpes was already one of the least populated: 168000 inhabitants, deems the constituent Assembly of 1789. The cities are modest: from 3 000 to 5 000 souls Digne, Manosque to Sisteron. In the villages, traders and craftsmen with ease, relative of course, aroused a certain spirit of independence, sometimes a few men of law active and intriguing, the most favoured farmers made the Municipal Council the organization able to frustrate the arbitrariness of the Lord. Explains what in 1656 already, Aiguines Board had banned access to "any public office" to people who had leased land from the co-seigneurs and which, therefore, were under more or less narrow dependence. As far as their right to honours, this is the choice for life to the majority of the community Councillors and councils claim through negotiation and defend in calling for the courts. Therefore, in 1747, in La Palud, a few weeks after the victory of Castellane on the Austro-piemontais, the Pierre-Louis de Demandolx Lord claimed to recover four tons of wood that he had delivered at the request of the enemy troops. The Council refused. The Lord has filed a lawsuit. It is finally dismissed, the communal forest providing wood.

Constitutions of advice to Ainguines, Castellane, etc.

Aiguines, as early as 1303, had established the constitution of Trustees and prosecutors, with the presentation of the grievances of the community. At Moustiers, where a Consulate was working since at least 1222, there is record of the deliberations of the Council until 1368; in Castellane, from 1473; in Trigance, 1514; in Rougon, of 1573; to Eoulx, 1603; in La Palud, to 1606. As those of Demandolx, pre-1790 documents consist only of a register of deliberations dated 1765, and the marital status of the parish of city and the branch of Saint-Michel, since 1706.
Although its orientation appears favourable to the population at large, the Council remains in fact oligarchical. Most often elected by an electoral college limited, either co-opted by outgoing advisors, its members are "more capable", i.e. the inhabitants of the village the richest and "more apparent".
Puimoisson, Council, composed of ten Councillors, three previous consuls and three in exercise, chooses himself its new members. It listed their names on as many tickets that we fold and that is shoot at random by a child; the first nine outgoing are appointed as advisors. A Clumanc, in 1740, for the renewal of the Council, each of the three consuls designated three new advisors. The consuls are somehow the Executive of the Council. They are two in general, sometimes three as Trigance and Castellane. Puimoisson, each represents a category of people: one the bourgeoisie, the other crafts, the third "the ploughmen".

Elections in Trigance

Trigance, in the 16th century and during the first third of the 17th century, the Council included seven people: three consuls, the two auditors of the accounts and "luminers" of the brotherhoods, and three estimators. Here is how the elections, to the common two-storey house then were: the former consuls, listeners and estimators were first to the election of the new consuls, each speaking "according to his rank". Operations were going "to the highest of the common house, as well as is the custom". In 1624, were elected Jean-Barthélemy Antelme, Jean-Antoine Rouvier and Nicolas Cartier. Then reading was made of the minutes in the room to downstairs, to the people assembled, or 78 presents this year there.
In 1664, counselors and consuls were sworn after their election, the common house. "And this fact, we, lieutenant of Justice, have gone to the Church with the respective consuls newly elected where, after having all together prayed to God and invoked the Holy Spirit you want to illuminate in the exercise of their duties, have made sit said consuls in their usual place what nobody said nothing nor any opposition, what we were required by the outgoing consuls sieurs Act that have conceded them".
La Palud, it is the "general Council", composed of the heads of family who, each year in mid-May, elected the two "consuls new", estimators, account Auditors, without forgetting the three "priors of the brotherhood of the Holy Spirit"; the highly variable number of participants is always sufficient to force to hold the Assembly in the open air.

Fix to bring new directors

However the consuls feel some difficulty to collect during the year a sufficient number of advisers to deliberate whenever it should. Also the community of Trigance she appointed in 1634 a Board of six members and all other who will find good to find the assemblies, in addition to the consuls and listeners 'old and new'. Councillors absent at the time of the many discussions whether they are in the village, are struck with a fine of 6. It was screaming the announcement of meetings "so that person not asserted cause of ignorance". The measure is insufficient: two years later, too many Affairs of the community are still outstanding because of the difficulties in gathering the number of Directors necessary to the validity of the proceedings. It therefore extends the Council to 20 members, including the presence of 15 is sufficient to deliberate, each of them being required to meet summonses under penalty of fine, except in cases of force majeure.
It appears that in La Palud, the regulation leaves more margin of freedom, all "home chefs" are invited to participate in the Council.
We believe that parents appreciate little offhand which to demonstrated Mr. the vicar to their elected representatives. From the record of the deliberations, the consuls went this morning to the Church do the adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, to represent all the people in this holy day. They did ask Mr. the vicar to the cross instead accustomed to kiss the foot of the crucifix. The vicar had refused, "they went to the devotion they have". This is why they did assemble this Board. He decided to take the case "before the vicar" and "making comments, on behalf of the community, with the prior and his vicar"!

The preponderance of wealth... sometimes contested

Almost everywhere is found the fix to convene the Council. Administrators lack of zeal, perhaps because they have the impression to play Extras, decisions being taken away often by the same few "bigwigs" too powerful for that one dares to contradict. Combating absenteeism, uses the carrot and the stick. Aiguines tries alternately to both methods: in 1751, the Council asked the intendant of Provence "kindly permit that the community pay advisors 3 pounds per year provided they attend all councils". Thirty years later, on the contrary, he enrolled in regulations a clause which provides, as in Trigance, fined for unjustified absences. Many administrators will be so smitten over the years that follow, as Marc - Antoine Brunet, in 1787.
Sometimes rise inevitable quarrels of people: in 1702, disagreements sow confusion within the Council of Trigance, forcing to appoint a commission to draw up a new regulation that aims to curb these "disorders" and "divisions". The measure also does not calm, since a few days after judge fines to Jean Aycard of 3 books for the benefit of the hospital for offensive lyrics and refusal to "silence the Council".

New regulation in Trigance

So many to avoid the still frequent disorders in meetings that to force municipal administrators to participate in these, Trigance Board sets in 1774 a new regulation. With the approval of the Lord, the marquise Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle, it shall submit, as it should, the approval of the Parliament. Now only heads of household "allivres" with ECU 50 at least, have voting rights in the Council, any other individual is required out on single judge's injunction. It elects 12 municipal officers who are: 3 consuls, which one at least "will write his name", 2 Auditors of the accounts, 3 estimators and 4 Councillors. The election takes place on 27 December, third Christmas party, after Grand mass. The consuls in office appoint 2 stewards of police, the prior and the "prieuresse" of the brotherhood of the Holy Spirit, 2 ladies for "pie piece" (hospital) and the churchwardens of the parish. 12 municipal officers may deliberate on all the Affairs of the community, the absentees being replaced by former advisers and, if necessary, the persons appointed by the consuls. The regulations specify that the first consul should be "allivre" at least of cadastral ECU 150, the second of 100 and the third from 70.
This preponderance of wealth occurs almost always: to Aiguines, for example, the regulation stipulates in 1786 as "members of the Council will take their meeting, most allivres before the less allivres". It must be sought, without doubt, in the belief that just well to conduct his private affairs to know how to drive those community la. This right-of-way of the richest sometimes faces a few challenges.

The Mayor office created by Louis XIV and sold to the highest bidder

Always short of money, Louis XIV created an office of Mayor is sold to the highest bidder. Very soon the community of Trigance acquires itself; as early as 1691, it delegates Jean Ingignac in Marseille to treat the purchase in the best conditions. The Vicar of the place and Pierre André lent him one 780 pounds, the other 100, to buy the roles of royal Treasurer and Mayor. In 1697, it sets the repayment of these loans the product of 25 loads of oats from the tasques and sold at auction. Eight years after the Council decides "perpetually" deliver the office of Mayor to one of the consuls, with all the powers attached to this charge; However, none of the consuls can read and write, when the Mayor of the previous year continued his duties.
But in general, these are individuals who have acquired the office. The Lord of La Palud "bought the town hall" of the village and took part in its deliberations in 1701 and 1709 "as Mayor and Chief Administrator of the community and not as Lord".
To Aiguines, in 1712, the Council protests against the purchase of the office of "Adviser of the King, first mitriennal a.c. consul" by Jean Issourat, on the pretext that the conduct and manners of it are inadequate. He asked the coseigneur of the place, of Sabran, kindly go to Aix and to propose to the intendant redemption of the Agency by the community. The approach was not successful and the Council must proceed with the installation of Jean Issourat. He must wait 1758 for the first consul, Louis Cogordan, can take the title of Mayor for the first time.
Demandolx, in 1723, it is still the Lord who purchases, despite the poor state of its finances, "alternative Mayor and clerk offices". In 1735, Joseph Laurens, Lord of Saint-Martin, arriere-fief of Chasteuil, is "former Mayor mitriennal and the town of Castellane alternative". Deleted in 1722, restored the following year, the office of Mayor is finally almost always bought by the community, that is why the first consul is also called Mayor. When in 1757, an edict authorizes the community to regain its former uses, it so nothing was changed, otherwise it has felt the creation of such an office as an assault on Civil Liberties and its redemption overwhelms a little more local finance.

The Treasurer

The range of loads supplementing the communal administration, cash is the least sought-after. The role of Treasurer, which could be compared to our current municipal receiver, is indeed to make it fit the sizes and other income of the municipality.
La Palud, if the oldest Council deliberations which it retained the si les plus anciennes deliberations de le conseil dont on ait conserve les archives archives date from July 16, 1606, the first Treasurer known is Antoine Turrel, which accounts for the year 1596 are deposited in the departmental archives of Digne. The Treasurer of the Board, the previous year was Gaspard Guérin. One year following Paullet Fellen.

The valet by city and local guards

The menial jobs, include the servants of city and rural guards. In Castellane, city jacks that make office attendants, have a less gleaming than those of the consuls, but also distinctive: a blue coat with red facings. That of La Palud receives his habit in 1789, at the same time as the consuls their chaperone.
Aiguines, the Jean-Baptiste Audibert city Jack is loaded, in 1782, as mail, to go to laugh every Sunday to inquire the price of wheat and bread and make the letters found at the post office. Similarly, the Council of Trigance will establish in 1790 a mail that go on Wednesdays and Sundays, to Castellane take letters to the inhabitants, which arrived "as fort later and often afterwards" because "Trigance finds itself in the cross country".
The police land and Woods is needed here as elsewhere: natural poverty of the soil, the periodic renewal of the crop failure, lack of pasture for the herds, many factors which create harmful habits and incite the extortion to illegal depaissance.
Evil is so great that the Triple Alliance Council, in 1638, gave a premium of an ecu that would surprise a Marauder on the day, two ECU night, in order to put an end to the flights of fruits and "other things". It allowed each individual to inquire about the origin of the fruits brought by any individual "coming from a cartier has no part". He also defended at any: brother, sister or other relative, to grant permission to anyone "to go fetch fruits" in the absence of the owner of the site.

The pastoral care

Also each community named "local bodyguards", its "Earth care" or its "fiakwasa", or even rural guard. The Council of Trigance, in 1585, was paying a "briancalleja" 36 guilders, over a quarter of half of the bans, for the protection of communal property and specific properties. In 1762, Aiguines Board revokes local guards because they have extracted money from several residents of the rooms, that they had caught trying to cut wood in the forest of Maucrouit. The fight against true brigandage requires greater resources. Thus on 12 August 1780, Parliament authorizes the city of Moustiers to establish a lookout for research and the capture of the criminals. There Maréchaussée indeed that worthy and Manosque.
In the village itself, they are often the consuls who shall personally to quell the disorders.
The Council of Trigance, in 1658, asked them to prevent nocturnal rioting, "pistoletades", stone-throwing and large fires that young people lit on the public square with the bundles of boxwood which it closes the stables to protect livestock from cold. Later, assuming their functions, the consuls refer "masters of police" or "stewards of police", to which they attribute this task. In 1764, they urge them to denounce the gabelier when it is in fraud or free wine and oil. There was also, in 1669, the "regardatours" who had power to inform against those who were false weight and false measure.
Despite its serious shortcomings, the Council has only one, in the villages of Haute-Provence, the communal administration; It landscape a certain collective management of the economic interests of the community; he cares of the medical organization and school education, dealing with it and this one in real public services. Finally there is a vast social mutual assistance.
So, unlike what happens in other provinces, where the community is confused with the parish, there is no break but natural continuity between the community of the Ancien Régime and the municipality who will succeed him.

The public service in the high Verdon

Education, State of the situation

In Marseille, popular education account in 1740 barely fifty-two masters in total. Twelve learn to read and write to the children. Twenty-three, almost all priests, give them principles of French and latin. Finally, seventeen introduce them to arithmetic. In 1786, Faculty did has still only forty-seven masters and eighty school mistresses. The comparison with the development of education for the elite shows a striking inequality: academies of Arles, Marseille and Aix; 17 Basse-Provence towns with colleges.
In the mountain, this difference between the means at the disposal of the fortunate and masses is not this shocking character. At the end of the 16th century, Louis de Demandolx, Lord of La Palud, sent his daughters studying at the convent of the Ursulines, to laugh, and the Haute-Provence has seven colleges in the 18th century, but it constitutes at the same time a real nursery of itinerant teachers. Nevertheless, in the single diocese of Riez, 20 parishes to 54 have no school before the Revolution. In the first third of the 19th century, an official report (8 August 1832) on the State of primary education in the boroughs of Barcelonnette, Castellane and worthy will post in our region nine villages that never had the slightest embryo of school (Châteauneuf, Chasteuil, Levens, Majastres, Robion, Saint-Jurs, Taloire, Taulanne and Villars-Brandis).
Under the Ancien Régime, the State does mingles in any way the operation of education, nor to control the programs that help small communities to finance their school. These are the only municipal councils concerned with the recruitment of the masters or "regents", and their compensation. By agreeing to teach, the parish priest of the parish, or high school (vicar) often pulls embarrassment consuls while magnifying its deriv. Books, cards and school supplies, they are probably pretty much non-existent.

Arrange to learn

Thus in La Palud, where a school operates since 1760 at least September 27, 1767, the Mayor informed the Council "that it came to him the record that Mr. Pierre Jugignac, priest and school of this place, would serve the parish of Montagnac, and as a consequence of the absence of Mr. Jug, Ignác making schools in this place, should receive a schoolmaster to teach youth". As a result the Council "deliberates to receive Jean-Joseph Astier, instead of le Bourguet, schoolmaster of this place... It will begin to make the school the day of the feast of Saint-Michel next and will end the last day of next June". Jean-Joseph Astier is known in La Palud, he already taught seven years earlier: tresoraires of the common accounts mention his name (1760) follow-up to "our schoolmaster", with the flow of the sum of £18 15 for a quarter; the Council also takes its decision that "under the approval of Bishop the Bishop of Riez, that the community requires humbly to approve". The bishops and sometimes cures are are indeed arrogated the right to accept or to challenge the masters chosen by the Commons.
The slowness of communications does not, facilitate for a village spread such as La Palud, the recruitment of the regents and the running of the school.
Another impediment to the recruitment of the regents probably lies in the weakness of the stipend that can ensure a small village. Thus the municipality may pay out of its own budget that - 15 pounds per year to compensate the teacher; However, when it is a secular and does not, as the Vicar, a deriv, it receives a complement of 30 pounds paid by the parents.
"Other villages are without doubt more favored: in Rougon, a school had to operate sooner, as evidenced by a lawsuit brought in 1685 by the community to Esperit Roubiny, priest, who ran the convention that hired him"at 30 pounds, to teach the children of the Rougon place"at the same time also that it maintain and to ring the clock for a year". In 1717, the son of the Lord of the hair, Honoré Roux, asking 60 books to teach, the Community budget will pay half, parents the rest. Aiguines, especially, seems to know a privileged fate: not only are instruction earlier still, but it is of better quality and the masters, who will succeed there without interruption, receive a higher salary.
To make a judgement on the school institution, it must be remembered that, in our mountains, half of the population subsists in the haunting of le pain quotidien. Its great endurance and energy helped him to live day by day, sometimes simply to not die of hunger. Ignorant, often superstitious, residents have organized themselves to give without any outside assistance, the beginning of instruction to their children. Their efforts are only more meritorious.

The health service: Trigance and Ainguines care

Sanitation remains very rudimentary in the villages, though the Council has generally required the most basic measures: that of Aiguines banned from 1644 to wash clothes and throwing of filth in the "barquieau" (basin) of the fountain. That of Trigance prevents from 1715 to file manure nearby wells.
The Council shall also bring the village of medical service. That of Trigance, as early as 1587, instituted a health bureau which consisted of the Lord and the three consuls. During the epidemic of plague in 1628, he has taken severe steps to isolate but also clean the village, has reactivated the Health Office, required on-site physician Pelassi. He hires a surgeon in 1636 to "hair, bloodletting, place the suction cups, and come once a week, for 1 cartier wheat 'mitadier' House, widows and needy excepted without their number exceeds thirty."
It also attaches a midwife services. In 1647, it was Honorade Alder, the Garduelle, who works for a compensation of 4 cents a day, in the burden "of women who will use it". The midwife and the surgeon relationships are not always of the best: in 1693, Honorade Preire ceases to carry following the conviction in ECU 4 to fine obtained against it by licensed surgeons to offices.
In April 1771, Trigance being plagued with a terrible epidemic, the Council brought in Riez and Aups physicians Bourret and Fabre. Despite their care and public prayers to attract God's mercy, the village lost 54 inhabitants (899 identified in 1765). A worker is suffering from insanity, in 1779, and becoming "dangerous for his family" and the public, the Council does lock and chained in a stable.
La Palud, September 24, 1724, the office of master-surgeon, the auction is awarded Moseph Franque, at the rate of 4 picotins of wheat per capita 'and the community will provide a House', but the poor will receive free care. Eoulx, population is showing not satisfied with her surgeon, the Council decided on 29 may 1773 to replace.

Hospitals in Castellane, Moustiers and other villages

Moustiers and Castellane have their hospitals, but Rougon, Aiguines and Trigance also. It was in 1655 that Aiguines Board bought a house designed to serve as a hospital for the poor. We have no information before the 17th century on to Rougon, but repair in 1716 and 1722 to house the poor, nor on that of Trigance, whose first is necessary was mentioned in the archives, it seems, to 1702: for disturbing the deliberations of the Council, a resident had to pay him the amount of the fine. Thanks to a query in Parliament (1789), however, we know that this charity work, "whose origin is not known", has, in addition to a small house bequeathed to the poor, a capital divided into three parts: 2,162 books 11 under 8 deniers in the hands of the community; 1,000 books held by the heirs of Antoine Lions-Garnier; 8000 pounds bequeathed by Jean-Baptiste Bertou, former parish priest of the village. It is administered by the outgoing consuls, the 'modern' consuls and the cure. These administrators do not always regular accounts. In 1766 already, could not prepare the statements of the situation, the parish priest, holds one of the keys, refusing to open the case where the securities were deposited. And since 1787, administrators have ceased to meet in office, despite the orders of the consuls and to the great prejudice of the poor whose number increases. Also, in its application, the Commission requests Parliament permission to convert this "pie" in a real hospital, under the term of Santiago, with a regulation that the Court may wish to establish to the "make it clever to collect pious bequests la".

Maintenance of streets and houses

Round about of the gorges du Verdon, a portion of the habitat is scattered in the countryside, the other part focuses clans villages, almost always perched and tightened. Each side of narrow alleys, workshop of the craftsman or the barn of the beasts on the ground floor, houses often superimposed the family home upstairs. They are built with materials of the country: stones and pebbles, pebbles on the Valensole plateau, related to lime baked on-site, hollow tile roof.
The Commission is concerned to ensure the inhabitants of Masons and roofers service. That of Trigance, in 1569, gave mission "bailiff" Louis Maistre and the consul to market with a manufacturer of tiles.
The Council of La Palud took, on 21 may 1725, the resolution "to try to find a master heard to make the necessary tiles for inhabitants, and on, the community, provide to advance what will be needed to build a tile oven". Eleven years earlier, that of Aiguines agreed with Joseph Aicard and Pierre Peisselon, potters of La Palud, so they come to make tiles. Confirming this agreement the next year, he said that the roofers will work in the area of the Nouguiere, with an allowance of 30 books; as coseigneur César de Sabran - Canjuers receive 10 pounds of compensation as long as they remain in the Nouguiere; that they will leave the oven in good condition and open the cabin where they work.
It is not enough to inquire of a qualified workforce, still need to procure materials. In 1687, the community of Trigance, who needs beams, uses understanding of Navy quartermaster, in Toulon, to take a few Oaks in the defens of Mussel, "all without abuse". In 1763, she gets the House of waters and forests permission to cut wood "to cook" required for the construction lime.
Sometimes the Council brings still more direct assistance to some particularly disadvantaged inhabitants. Aiguines, he restore in 1769, for Pierre Brunet, 'very poor man', the remains that the rain and wind were gutted, and compensates the neighbours of the damage amounting to 160 pounds, sum said Brunet promises to repay in five years. Communal administrators must ensure, of course, maintenance of streets and possibly decide the creation of new passages.

The care of fountains: Notre-Dame de la Font

In a region where lack drinking water, where each saves the slightest drop, public fountains and wells subject to great care. In 1625, Trigance Council vote a "bind" for the repair of the fountains, under penalty of 7 slot for men and 3 slots for women who refuse "to go". One hundred twenty years later, he concedes the maintenance and cleaning of wells to Pierre Gibelin, candy from wool, with annual wages of 4 pounds, and seized his manure profit which would be deposited around, in charge for him to denounce anyone who would draw water for irrigation.
In the 17th century, La Palud has only a single fountain, known as 'make', located at the western end of the village. On November 21, 1791, the Council is seized of a protest of the white Penitents, to whom he gave time the Chapel: they complain about the diversion of the water of the fountain by Antoine Turrel, Potter, who built a House against the chapel on land that belongs to them.
At the time of the Revolution, as early as November 19, 1793, La Palud Council proposes to buy water from another fountain, flowing in the courtyard of the Castle, and "belonging to the Nation". After "unanimously deliberate", the Council charge the Mayor "to buy Jean-Gaspard Demandolx the concession of water from the fountain which is in the enclosure of this municipality.This second fountain work finally in 1811 on the church square.

Fountains at Ainguines and Trigance

To Aiguines, the Council shall act (1643) on the location of the fountain, in fact pave the front, forbidden to open the duct under penalty of a fine of 6 pounds payable half in the Lord, half in the community. In 1672 and 1674, roots by obstructing the aqueduct, it's felling trees and repair; in 1693, restore this aqueduct by Boyer, Potter in Aups; in 1702, ask the pipes since the fountain up to the "reserve" where water is shared with the fountain of the Castle, by Allard, Potter, with 30 books; in 1714 he spent contract yet with André Boyer, who nine years will ensure maintenance of the aqueduct priced at 27 pounds per year. He defends to wash clothes and throwing of filth in the "barquieau" (basin) of the fountain.
Trigance Council prohibits file 'close to Wells' manure (1745).
Circumstances sometimes require less common initiatives. Due to the great drought of 1767, the consuls and the baron of Gauthier, Abbot of Aiguines, load various entrepreneurs, for a package of 100 pounds, to bridge the chasm of Sandran and to spill to the surface water flowing there at the bottom, so that it can be used in Canjuers which is free.

Sun dials and clocks

To know the time, the inhabitants had merely consult sundials... when there was sunlight. It is in the middle of the 18th century, from the top of their Tower, first clocks start to reel off the time. In Trigance, Anne-Marie de Demandolx has proposed as early as 1727 the installation of one of them, and even pay one-fifth of the expenditure. It will take 35 years to make the Council recognize the usefulness of it "for patients... workers, Mule drivers" and other inhabitants, and to inform the intendant of his intention of establishes a. EU 1766, it offers to the marquise de Valbelle to erect the tower "at the top of the village, on the rock" over the Endronne oven. And ten years pass again until Jacques Collet, Draguignan, finally asks the movement that it has manufactured in the belfry built over the House of the sacrament.
Aiguines decides later but his project in less than three years: in 1781, the prescribed Council the establishment of a clock, "whereas the village is many, subject in diseases, and a passage in instead bounded by a large hill that prevents you the Sun", said the record of the proceedings. The location is planned on the plot. Étienne Duguet, stonemason, Jean-Baptiste Bower and Pierre Castellan, master masons, all three of Aups, build the Tower (1783) for the price of 1 170 pounds; Malfroy, watchmaking, provides the mechanics at a price of 700 pounds; The baron de Gauthier advance money to pay the bell bottom Galopin, and which weighs 609 books, priced at 22 floors the book.
La Palud, November 21, 1791, the Council decides to repair the clock "which sounds more hours", without specifying where it lies, then, is ravishing less than three months after (February 2, 1792), confirms the need for this repair but in deciding to now place the clock and its Bell at the top of the Bell Tower.

The maintenance of the Church and the cure

The religious mentality of the era, the sociability of the populatiion and vitality of the brotherhoods give the parish church (place where we pray and we catéchise, but still where we meet) a prominent role in the social life of the village.
Aiguines Church is perhaps the location of that mentioned in the CARTULARY of Saint-Victor at the beginning of the 10th century. In any case, it existed when Balthasar of Gauthier, did build his castle above the areas. It was then only a nave. The two side naves date respectively from 1653 to 1750: the right, with a vault in arc of warhead, the left in edge full hanger. In 1675, the Council resolved to build a sacristy behind, back the master altar at the bottom of the central nave, and at the same time to erect a stone cross in the cemetery, all at common expense: a third of capiscol (cure) and two thirds borne by the community, in accordance with the award of the general Vicar of the diocese.
The Church is dedicated to Saint Peter, patron of the country. Sainte-Agathe is honored in the same way. In 1721, the Community claims the Bishop of Riez the reliquary of the Holy, she had entrusted to him, and asks to open the feast of it according to use, i.e. by ringing the Bell during the previous night and celebrating a high mass in the presence of the consuls. In the Canjuers plain, the inhabitants could not attend services during the winter, the Council advocated to erect a chapel.

Church of Trigance

Trigance parishioners have also, to enlarge their church. In 1669, the Commission seeks the authorization of the Bishop of Riez. Three years later, the project takes shape. The expansion began on the side of the "feraye" of the Lord, after the easing of protests by residents that the work may interfere with, including Alexis Auteville, who suggested to proceed with enlargement towards the House of Angles, and Jean Rouvier and Henri Antelme, that would have preferred it on the side of the cemetery. Thanks through the Lord Claude Demandolx and his wife Louise of Venlo, the discussions have ended "as long as the community... will pay six ECU more" to Henri Antelme. The consuls are responsible to find materials: stones, sand, etc. In 1750, the Council deals with a cross country skier from Bargemon for the redesign of the small broken Bell, because the surrounding inhabitants cannot fulfil the duties of Christians lack hear ringing.
Maintenance of the cure, we have already seen, sometimes against the community and its cure. Thus, the inhabitants of Rougon are on trial (1695) with Messire Pierre Taxil, vicar and messire Jean Martini, Canon of Riez, prior of the place about the House structure "in danger of ruin". Indeed, it collapses two years later, but by the fault of Joseph Audibert who, while digging the rock, has caused serious damage. The community built another but proceedings (1750) about repairs a carry out, against messire Pierre Hubaud, parish priest.

Maintenance of the Roman road and roads

During fifteen hundred years, the network of communication channels has hardly changed in the Provençal mountain. Until the 17th century, and even after, the old Roman roads, that complement "drailles" of transhumance, remain the only means of entering. One or the other have benefited from regular maintenance. From that time, a series of works are undertaken, including the construction of bridges, and start connecting the villages. Yet the communications remain difficult.
The single main road serving the Haute-Provence is the one which, coming from Marseille, Aix and Meyrargues, crosses the Durance at the height of Mirabeau by the Ford of Canteperdrix. It dates back the right bank by La Brillane, Manosque, Sisteron and Gap, and moves towards the col Bayard. Another road, which branches on the first before the Ford of Canteperdrix, dates the Durance by the left bank. It spans the Verdon at Viñón, through a bridge since 1780 only, then the Asse (to Ford), serves prayer, Les Mées and crosses the Bléone on a bridge built in 1756. On the other side of the River, it turns right, to Digne, left towards Malijai and Sisteron, where it joins the main road on the right bank, after crossing the Durance on the deck of the balm; dating from 1365, it was the only one of the entire Valley. Route of the rive gauche, at the outlet of Vinon bridge, connects a road which joins worthy by Riez, Tellell post and the Valley of the Asse it crosses at Mézel on a bridge in 1777.

The Moustiers-Castellane - la Palud road

Moustiers is not real road. It is a mule built between 1730 and 1745, happening in Bargemon, traverse the Grand Plan of Canjuers then the Verdon at the old bridge of Aiguines (drowned in the Lake of St. Croix) Grasse perfumers go every year, in July, at the Beaucaire fair, after doing step by the city of faïence. The transverse axis Moustiers Castellane is, too, than a mule very poorly maintained. Out of Moustiers, a particularly harsh climb, through quar tier Courchons, joined to the ancient Roman road Venascle Riez-Castellane; that it has been paved and improved (1679) through of multiple "contouis", this segment remains dangerous Nevertheless, sometimes causing the fall of mules. As the Roman road, it always follows the difficult route leading Venascle and the Clue to the Plan de Châteauneuf by the Valley of the Valonge; then after crossing a Ford successively the Baou and the torrent of Praoux, it climbing the slope of Deneiras, leash Rougon right, cuts the village of Chasteuil North, continues on a mountainside beneath the ruins of the first Chasteuil, passes to Villars, at the foot of the Brandis Cadieres, crosses the Valley of La Colle and leads to Castellane in the Plan.
Contact Moustiers La Palud avoiding the bad Courchons and the difficulties of the Valley of the Valonge, a new path will open shortly before the Revolution; to the South the first, it borrows the mouth of the gorges du Verdon it crosses by the highest terrace of Saint-Maurin, climbed the col of Ayen, descends on La Palud. The Lord of the village is Pierre-Louis de Demandolx. About her, the Demandolx family history indicates that "we owe the continuation and completion of the new route de Moustiers in Castellane he made pass through La Palud and the banks of the Verdon, in building more broad in best countries, away from the torrents and floods. But it is not easy to do good. Mr. de Deinandulx made the sad experience, and he had the largest penalty to do adopt this new path, advantageous to the country, and attracted the hatred of a part of the administration, especially that of Moustiers, hatred, grace has the nascent revolution, manifested not only by threats and cries, but of assault and violence. In fact, it was still that of a mule. It will be only in 1847 that the Mayor of La Palud, Potter Joseph Peisselon, will lead the town to expand and complete the existing. Four years later, carts can follow the road along its length, with the exception of the passage of Saint-Maurin: a section that does not exceed per kilometre, but to cut from end to end in "shots of firecrackers" in the rock. La Palud is seeking financial assistance Reeve without success. The mayor offers to take the difficulty in front. Even before the publication of the decree authorizing it, ten Paluards have already covered the necessary loan (December 15, 1857); work is done drum beating, some months after, the course Moustiers - La Palud can be done in cart from end to end.

Axis Digne-Castellane-Grasse

The vertical axis Digne-Castellane-Grasse is only a series of bad roads, although Senez Castellane section has been corrected in 1765. A fact that speaks volumes about his condition: on his return from Elba (1 March 1815), Napoleon will travel without difficulty in Golfe Juan in Cannes and Grasse. But barely exceeded City (March 2), when he will want to continue on Castellane, it must abandon its sedan and its two small field guns, the path being passable only with mules.
The town of Castellane is served by a single road, which comes from Saint-Maximin by morons, Aups, Saint-Bayon, Comps and Robion (Saint Thyrs) it was built in 1729; the Comps-Robion segment, in particular, enjoys significant work from 1729 to 1752.
The Mule Trigance-Draguignan by Saint-Bayon-where it crosses the road Castellane - Aups - Saint Maximin was the subject of corrections to facilitate the cartage of the wood needed for the Royal Navy. The bridge over the Artuby date from 1655; for its construction, the community of Trigance contributed 30 pounds.
In opposite directions, Trigance joins the axis Moustiers-Castellane by a Bridleway that crosses the Verdon at the Carajuan wooden bridge. To build it (1643), the Commission allowed Pierre Brun de Castellane, Lord of Rougon and son-in-law of François de Demandolx, Lord of Trigance to take oak, provided they do not cut that trees marked by the consuls, and grant the right to shoot "terroir" timber "in perpetuity" to the community of Rougon. The construction lasts for three years. As early as 1645, Trigance Council decides to open the path leading to the bridge. The rains the having furrowed, he does rehabilitate (1660) and pray the Lord of Rougon to continue work on the other side "to the career of gip". The bridge itself must not be very solid car, soon (1663), the community of Rougon initiates a procedure for workmanship against Esperit Gauthier of Aimot, to which it had entrusted the construction price is.
The road serving Taloire branches on the Castellane-Comps road and will join the Moustiers-Castellane axis crossing the Verdon River by a bridge of wood (dating from 1620). Finally, North region, a path which, starting from Moustiers, is sinking in the massif of Majastres, leads to this village. It splits: a branch (built 1750-1763) WINS Senez, the other (converted from 1713) leads to the road (remade in 1776 Barrême-Mézel by the Glue de Chabrières).

Langue source
Un tournant pour la noblesse

Saint-Pancrace - Digne
Bléone Valley - Digne

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