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The economy and recreation in the region of the Verdon

The economy and recreation

The auction of the butchery, bread, wine, oil and salt supply

Most of the time, the sale of bread, wine, salt, oil and the meat is entrusted exclusively to dealers with whom the Council passes a lease each year. This lease gives to one that enjoys a true monopoly on sales and supply conditions often very precise.
It was in 1551 the Trigance Council set up a "wine and pan gabelier". The wine must come from a place situated a day's walk to the more return, in order to encourage local production. Every inhabitant can get wine in limited quantities and in charge itself for three days at the Saint-Roch but he can at any time sell the wine of its own harvest.
In practice, the gabelier is hardly its commitments since 1696 the Council asked the consuls to choose for this use preferably a foreigner, whereas "the place people despise their promise and never observe their duty". And we have seen that the "masters of police" received the order in 1761, to denounce the gabelier when it is in fraud or free wine and oil.
September 5, 1621, the Council of La Palud gives consuls to auction by candlelight the burden of gabelier of bread. The municipality of Eoulx, in 1687, was a gabelier for the bread, wine and oil. Demandolx, residents have the right to have their special ovens to bake their bread, but must still contribute to the maintenance of the oven prepared by the Lord to the use of the community. Trigance do work, it seems, than the seigneurial ovens; the community renting them at a price that varies with the times; in 1690, the lease of the ovens expiring at the Saint Michel, the Council refuses to renew it if the Lord does not reduce the annual special date, or ECU 80, which is a clear loss for the inhabitants; Finally, the lease is spent 9 years at ECU 70. Before this period expires, the farm is renewed in 1697, for 10 years, with an annual pension of ECU 20 only.

The municipal butcher

In each village runs what might be called a municipal butchery. In 1553, Trigance Council imposes on his shield to sell at prices fixed in advance the sheep, or goats. In 1588, the shield is required to kill in April and September "enough" for an agreed price and varying each month.
Aiguines, Council passes also annually a new lease or renew the former with a butcher, laying down while also accurately the price of meat. Thus, in 1665, it delivers the butchery in Jacques Achard's La Palud, to the condition that it sell the sheep book 2 under 6 deniers; of menon, 11 patacs; that of beef, 2 under. the "Federal" [sheep], 8 double. In 1707, the Commission approves the deed of lease of the butcher in favour of Jean Achard on condition that it sell the sheep book 3 slot until midsummer, and the rest of the year 2 under 8 denier.
In La Palud, April 24, 1628, auction of the butcher 'cried and proclaimed by Claude Peysselle' place the Coullet.

The operation of collective land, herds and Woods

The Board first and constant concern for the development of the conditions of use of collective land. Over the centuries, it has established patterns of cultivation of land gastes, limited the use of the defens, protected Woods and meadows against a too intensive use, regulated the breeding of herds. And when in times of scarcity, it purchases wheat outdoors and rages against the hoarding or illegal market, it obviously strives to give people the means to feed themselves, but also to sow to ensure next harvest. It is still him which, in many villages, fixes the date from which it will pick the grapes: September 21, 1721, that of La Palud decides to yell that Thursday will be open the harvest; one needle, in 1742, defends harvest before October 17 and the following year, fixed the harvest to 8 October.

The Council against the Lord

Sometimes it protects the right of grazing of the community against the claims of the Lord. Aiguines, Pelissier having denounced in 1724 some inhabitants whose herds were introduced in his land of Chanteraine, the Council decides to take up and cause residents to maintain their rights. It sends the following year, in Aix, lieutenant j., Jean Issaurat, to designate, in conjunction with the Lord, arbitrators who must take a decision on the dispute.
Alternatively, the Council intervenes to protect the community against the encroachments of the people of the Lord. In 1667, that of Trigance threat to encumber the lease of the farmers to whom Bartholomew de Demandolx arrenté land of Estelle, if they continue to depaitre in the grazing of the Mussel, the Lord is having no rights. Nearly eighty years later, the Council makes searching in archives, by Notary Pierre Cartier, if these "rentiers" of Estelle have the option of making browser their flocks on the terroir of Trigance without paying the size because they refused, in the year 1744, let them count "whatever they have brought in more than ever".
The marquise Marguerite Delphine de Valbelle, Lady of Trigance, having requested revocation of the deliberation which claims to submit to the size the cattle of Estelle, the Council recalls that it does follow the old ways, but relies on the righteousness of the Lord "who does not wish to", for the benefit of the single farmer of Estelle introducing each year into the territory of 30 to 36 "trenteniers""deprive residents hold menu cattle to fatten their land".
The case is not quickly resolved because in 1752, the Council decides to cease any execution against the farmers Clumes and Estelle pending the arrival of the marquise de Valbelle in the course of the summer, and rely on the decision thereof, except reimbursement to the farmers said, who paid or promised to pay overpayments as the other people, if there is.

The Council against the threat of the neighbouring villages

Other times the Council intervenes to protect the community against the encroachments of nearby villages: in 1656, La Palud consuls who does grab some sheep grazing in their grazing and belonging to individuals of Rougon, the case can be adjusted by a transaction, La Palud paid 15 pounds; similar dispute in January 1671, between the same two communities. In 1742, Aiguines Board does draw a record against individuals of Meyreste which the diseased herds of the "chas" (POX), entered on its soil, to the detriment of capita.
Not only pastures are collective, but sometimes also guard the herds. Castellane, the community hired annually public shepherds, both for goats than oxen and mares. At Trigance, since in 1551 he hired for one year a "saumalier" having the custody of the livestock through 3 "poindieros" of wheat and 3.5 oat by beast, the Council regularly uses common goatherds and shepherds. Thus, in 1638, it loads the consuls of choosing guards the territory, swine and goats. In La Palud, are the pigs in the village keep a common porcher. In April 1790, the Council will hire André Abert for the annual fee of a penal of wheat meslin by pig, paid half in the month of April, half at the end of the year.
An order of Colbert banned (1690) goats in a number of villages. But these beasts are too useful to ensure that the communities do not react. In 1718, that of Trigance requests authority to elevate, subject to the the mussel defens, which alone can provide trees for the Royal galleys, otherwise "parties of the poor inhabitants will be forced to skedaddle" fault of dairy products "for their soups". The following year, of the same present Aiguines query indicating that it was not on its soil of wood used for the service of the King.

Survey and results

A new investigation is ordered (1730) for whether or not prohibit goats in Provence. Commissioners roam the jurisdictions, recording the reasons for or against these herds:

  • To Aiguines, they find only very old white oak woods, also of boxwood and genets, hopeless to see grow no other species, the ground being unsuitable and arid. In other neighborhoods, the wild pine and fake (beech) very old; the boxwood, crake, thyme. You can put goats; There are already 10 "trenteniers", 18 (540 beasts) are allowed.
  • Saint-Jurs, boxwood and thyme cover all districts, except one where to grow a few Oaks but where others may grow; Auditors therefore prohibit the access of goats, although it was already 2 "trenteniers".
  • At Moustiers, in the plain, at sunset, we see land cleared for about twelve years, aggregate of a wood of white oak for about forty years, other small very young Oaks and amount of emerging. It could be more expected that the quality of the soil is own to produce. On the other hand, in the area called 'the mountain', populated by fake, inaccessible wild pine, with some steep to steep rocks, where found that boxwood and broom, goats can harm.
  • In Châteauneuf, off some very thick white oak-trimmed places, "to the rest you can't see that boxwood and broom".
  • In Levens, auditors noticed a fake old and thick, and on a small mound, wood a few white, also very old oaks.
  • To Majastres, which strikes are the vast expanses of land Gäste planted with boxwood, with some arable land: goats may be allowed.
  • In Trigance, which has neither guards nor olive, goats milk is an essential food: "Food of the inhabitants, unique food" State investigators painfully impressed by the poverty of the population.

Those who propose to substitute sheep goats, they recall the absence of water: Estelle has only a single well.
The erosion progresses throughout the centuries; land make it less and less, lose their value and give way to the peeled rocks. Figures quoted by the history of Demandolx family for stately Demandolx properties are significant: the Sceouve has produced once 38 charges, she still gives 34 in 1660, but its performance will gradually fall up to 14 in 1798 and 12 in 1806; Le Claux is leased for 30 charges in 1660 and 37 in 1663, it is more than 25 in 1812 and 18 in 1818. To stop the scourge or at least slow its ravages, the Parliament of Provence and communities continue to oppose as they can to the deforestation of the mountains. The King also, intervenes to ensure the materials necessary for the construction and maintenance of its vessels. The grazing of the mussel in Trigance, thus subject to special supervision, its oak being reserved for the Royal Navy. In 1667, the village was cut in this forest 400 trees to the galleys. Claude de Demandolx required a portion of the sale. The Council asked to arbitrate the dispute "to bear witness to the good will and intention that the community has to live in peace" with his Lord.

Trial for the sale of oak

In 1690, Delphine de Vento, widow of Barthélemy de Demandolx, in turn claims its share of a new sale of oak trees felled in the mussel to the construction of Royal galleys. His brother-in-law, baron de Fox, invites the community to pay ECU 100 to finish case, "whereas the consequences that it would subsequently". The Council prefers to rely on the arbitration. Evil takes him: the arbitrators give two-thirds of the market to the Lady of Trigance. The fact community call and, the trial is prolonged, offers thirteen years later, in compensation, to contribute to the cost of a book that Delphine de Vento wants to build above the Jabron deck to take water from the mill. "At the same time as the Lady of Trigance threatened to complain to the intendant of the Navy of the great"disorders and cuts"that were made to the deffans of the Mussel, the Council decides to regularly monitor the wood and to prosecute offenders".
Aiguines, Joseph Lions, Turner, who has requested the House of waters and forests the authorization of cut lime to make mortars of compasses, the Council requires in 1754 the price of cut trees without permission following the assessment of the judge Goh, committed for that purpose by the Court. In 1787, he filed complaint against the dervishes who cut green wood and "make this object an infinitely ruinous trade branch for the community", but rejects tax on the towers proposed by the Mayor. Because the requirements of everyday life are more compelling even than the law. Moreover, shortly after (1789), the Council claims in the House of the waters and forests, so as not to impede further industry of plumbers, the revocation of the decision (December 1, 1777) prohibiting the cutting of trees. "Meanwhile Trigance Council had already asked the same Chamber of waters and forests permission to cut wood" to cook"lime, due to the needs of the population".

Wolves and rabies in Trigance (1769)

In the 17th and 18th centuries, in Provence, Wolves still roam in the Woods and not only in the high country: around of Aix, 127 beasts are destroyed in a period of ten years (1639-1649), an average of more than one per month. The killers of wolves affect a premium charged to the jurisdictions. States in Brignoles (1632) fix this gratuity to 8 books exhibit. Some jurisdictions have refused to include in their budget this expense which yet is any seniority in Provence. Prosecutors of the country receive the communities meeting she also Brignoles (February 1 (i55), the order to appeal to the Court of Auditors against the recalcitrant jurisdictions.) This prescription is renewed in 1684, in 1749, and it is still in 177910.
Trigance archives mention regu-larly the presence of wolves in the region and the hunting on their book. Thus the Council vote in 1666 a premium of £ 5 refundable by the viguerie, favour Alexandre Aubert, who killed a Wolf cervier. In 1694, due to "major damage" caused, it promises a bonus of an ecu and a half per destroyed animal. Two years later, it loads Pierre Cauvin, blacksmith of the village of deposit of meat poisoned in "the most suitable posts" to remove predators become so numerous that they pose a threat to livestock 'big and menu', and even for the
 
men. The consuls buy 2 pounds (760 g) of powder hunting "if necessary".
In 1723, the extraordinary expense caused by the 'cache' (beaten) requires the vote of an exceptional tax of 2 books 5 sub by 'trentenier' flock, 13 cents per large beast "pied redon", 9 cents per ox or cow, 5 under by donkey and 4 cents per pig. The following year, the wolves "are beau-coup's ravages herds" and ordered another beaten with power to the consuls of 'rent' even, if necessary, "those which have no cattle". Maybe wolves are subsequently fewer or less aggressive: the premium falls, in 1732, 3 lbs for any individual who kills one or take a litter of four Cubs. If there is a lull, it does not last more than 40 years. In 1764, indeed, Council asked the Parliament because of the "great ravages of wild beasts" leave to "the great hunt" four times a year and four days. He buy the following year 2 pounds (760 g) of "nut vomica" to poison wolves.
In 1769, is the drama: a female, believed to be rabid, already wounded five men and bitten mules. As soon as the Commission invites the consuls to take all means to destroy it, without waiting for the authorization of the intendant of Provence. It also promises 24 books in the troupe who will kill, and 12 books to each of the other hunters. As soon as he is informed of the situation, the Attorney for the King of the sénéchaussée directed by letter to isolate buffs mules, and press to seek the approval of the Lord or his representative in the case where needed a "big hunt". The Council is organizing a drive to kill the she-Wolf, or at least away territory wolves and "other bectes savages" such as wild boar. Of course, he reserves the rights of the Lord, to which one will write as soon as we will have the time. The consuls distribute powder and balls to the most adept shooters, more 12 slot to every man 'commit for this'.
 
284.
 
Educated in turn of "disorder" caused by the animal which, finally, is many rabid, prosecutors of the country send their instructions: bring Darluc, "very clever doctor in such disease"; follow its ordon-funded, the Province committing to reimburse the costs of travel and "relief to the sick"; make severely keep in the assigned place, under the personal responsibility of the consuls, the buffs mules, and shoot them at the slightest sign of rage; "hold firm and kept" the pigs of the Estelle farmer, of which some were bitten.
The inhabitants run at any point these orders: the Darluc doctor comes, stays several days; the consuls visit daily - ing sick "to attach and to keep"; Surgeons make the belly-ments; mules are killed. And patients die.
After a few weeks, the Council has only to solicit the attorneys of the country the reimbursement of expenses incurred, because the community is "extremely burdened" and out of paying arrears. It had also paid to consuls, surgeons, hunters, to those "who burned the effects and the rags of poor miserable who died of rabies," to those who "have buried slaughtered mules". Finally she rescued individuals reduced to poverty because they shot their mules, and poor families who have lost their parents.
The following year, the consuls must still buy "of the fish for the wolves' which still lurk in the vicinity. In I77ii, "big hunt" to the beasts ravaging herds. In 1784, purchase 2 books ("nut vomica" 7(i0 g), 5 pounds (I 900 kg) of fat and 12 i. (4 kg 560) cheese, to continue)
 
the poisoning of wolves, of which three are already dead I I.
Place names have retained until we the memory of the time when wolves accounted for the inhabitants an additional torment: to Aiguines, for example, a farm still bears the name of the Wolf while a few kilometers further, on the commune of Sainte Croix, a locality is called "Paraloup". Some specimens appear to have haunted until the last third of the massive region the highest century xixr. Chauvets (hamlet of Châteauneuf) teacher wrote in 191-1: "À l'Heure actuelle, the region is devoid of wolves but some 40 or 50 years ago, there still the Chanier and the Chiran, where the crevices of rocks and caves found were, according to the old inhabitants of the town, their usual hangout it".
HANDICRAFT AND INDUSTRY PROVIDE SERVICES ESSENTIAL TO DAILY LIFE, SOMETIMES ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Crafts and industry bring to the vil-lages in the region the services essential to the life (the every day and sometimes additional resources. Water courses operate some wheat or oil, mills that reported the Cassini13 card. On the Verdon, it shall give one at the foot of Demandolx, another under Chasteuil, a third on St. Croix. On the .jabron, she mentioned one near 13renon, that she calls "the mill of Eoulx", and two others under Trigance, on a Creek instead said today "Les Moulins". One on the ravine of Riou, called the mill of Suns. On the Bauu found three also, silly dis -
 
11 archives of the Var, 1111 5, fol.198; 1111 H, 1.01.381, 1(1.5 et 406 0; fol.28 e', 47 et 186;) (III) 15, roi.41 v and 57; BIS 16,.
fol.. 8, 8 bis, 13 0, 20, 77, 280 0; 1111 17, fol. 147 0; 1111 b.
12 - Mr. Campos, lonographic of Charters, Paris, 1911, p.: 17.
13 - Compiled by order of Louis XV, "Cassini map" is not only the oldest in France, u topographic scale hune cards rack, but also the first clans the world which is based on a detailed geodetic canvas. Relying on the triangulation of the territory national achieves by Cassini de Thury, of the Royal Academy of Sciences, the levees on the ground and the map of the jurisdictions of Digne, Forcalquier, Moustiers copperplate engraving, Castellane el Annot became A 1780, 1782. "A Trigant e in s sguerie of Draguignan, they took earlier: in 1768, the Chemistry Council power to Baram, sea, his delegate in Aix, do r stretch the" imam of supplies and housing "that the community has made" engineers loads of abeam the Pr os ing e. tart (Archives of the Var, Trigance, 1111 15, fol.. 211). Interesting additions cunununir.nlion routes were made gold r legion of draw. subsequent.
 
Persians: a Dame cave in Chateauneuf (one of the community), lowest Périer mill, which still exists today, and the last more downstream. On the Chanteraine Creek, three relatives of each other. On the Estoubiaisse, one between Levens and Majastres. On the Asse, one in Blieux. None on the Mayor. Most of these establishments have the monopoly of the production of flour: to grind their grain, the inhabitants wear mandatory du Moulin de place because of its "banality", stately or communal fee paid either to the Lord, either to the community, Miller charged to manage on behalf of one or the other. To Demandolx, for example, cannot grind to the mill of the Lord "at the 24th". However, if the mill is still three days away without turning, the inhabitants have the right to wear their grain on the other hand.
Monopoly is at the origin of many conflicts. In Castellane, in 1653, the consuls asked higher authority to force Jean Bourgarel, sucker, "to hold three mollins mottants in estat for the convenience of the inhabitants". In 1671, is Mills dealer who undertakes proceedings against Augustus white, tailor clothes, the city, which "did grind and bake Robion without his permission 1 ' 1. In Trigance, the Board deliberates (1670) complaints of the inhabitants against Millers who have arrenté Mills although no longer able to work, "there has no water", these suckers require a fee of those who were "out" their wheat to grind; In addition, they have delivered "of gloved all meal". The Council requests the Lord Claude de Demandolx, owner of mills, make these unduly collected royalties, and decides, if Millers refused, to petition the lieutenant of Draguignan.
A century later, then the Lords no longer live from long the Castle, the
 
HISTORY OF THE GORGES DU VERDON / 285
Marquise Delphine de Valbelle has leased the land and assets that it holds in Trigance to one named Girard. The Council warns that the community, "tired of suffering" and crai gnant that things get worse still, will be forced, reluctantly, to cause due to negligence that brings its sous-fermier, Antoine Cartier, to repair the mill, to the great displeasure of the inhabitants and especially the poor ". At Senez, Marc-Antoine de Gauthier, coseigneur of Senez and Alpine, does take 12 March 1642 "fruit and annuity from the mill to the FT community bled". Aiguines, Jean-Louis de Sabran imposes (1693) an overload of royalties to the inhabitants who have to grind necessarily its Chanteraine mills. The Council protested, and in pursuance of previous transactions, the sum, by an counterclaim, to repair its mills that are in poor condition. Three years later, he takes is cause of Louis Colomp: pretext the peasant went to grind barley for bathrooms, Jean-Louis de Sabran that enter its grain and his donkey, although the operation of the mills remains defective 17.
Most of the villages have their cord-niers, their carders, their carpenters, sometimes their basket. From 158 (i, the Council of Trigance got on with a "baltutyte" who undertook to come "basteyar" in the village for three years, twice a year, in May and in October, "iron bast when will be required", f; cents per seat or small animals bat, and 9 cents per seat of big beasts ' '.) In many places, it cultivates and works hemp which is used to make ropes and especially so-called paintings by household, for local use. A district of La Palud is still the name of "the Val de Nay", the nay being other than Creek (or Ibn-wool) where is ret hemp. In 1738, Trigance Council prohibited from ret hemp clans Jabron due to lack of water I".
 
14 - Archives of the Alps - key - flaute - hovenre, series IS 788 cl IS 817, ha. 115.
15 - Archives du Var, 1111 6, fol.. ! 11, 1111 16, fol. el. 368.
16 archives of Alpes-de-1 fault-n■vence, IS 1120, 1.01.10.
17 - Archives du Var BB 3, fiel. 199 el 203; ISIS 4, fl. 4.
18 - archives of the Var, ISIS 3, fol.!) 5th.
19 - Archives of the Var, Trigaure, ISIS III, fol. 271.
 
286.
Another widespread trade is the "chal mare to forge" or farrier. At Moustiers, the walls of the streets return the clear beat of the anvils where are several Farriers; in 1767, a "community table" lists in the city, its two hamlets and the lordship of the Clue for 1890 'souls of all sexes' divided into 313 houses, some 42 horses, 62 mules and (i5 "Jackasses", which "replenish the earthenware factories in fuels and raw materials, and carry their productions up to the famous fair of Beaucairee". Often the farrier is renewed or confirmed at the time of the election of the consuls. In 1 (i68, Trigance Council has resolved to appoint one or more marshals 'for the service of the community". La Palud, September 23, 1725, Antoine Bouvier, Trigance, is received in this job "which the community it will be a tool in hand, called thrusting (vise), which will remain in the background in the community". In 1749, it was at Etienne Tournel, rooms, that the Board of Aiguines pays the forge and tools, on condition that he comes to settle in the village. Some time after, the Council made mending the enclume21. Yet, despite the importance of the number and the use of mules, found, in 1783, a forge or two Châteauneuf and Bougon, none in Chasteuil, Demandolx, Eoulx, Levens, Sandra.
In 1783, here are the villages of the region where factories run on wood or coal from boise! (it is convenient - LY not using the 'stone coal'): Castellane: 2 factories Earth pottery, tiles, 10 caps 2 and wax, dye 1.
Moustiers: It made of earthenware.
La Palud: 5 Earth pottery factories. Blieux: I oil mill, 3 marshals to forge and, during the summer, 2 Mills, "one for distillation of..." Pavende, the other to the tiles".
 
In our region, it begins to distill Lavender in the xviir century, at the time where, in Grasse, the perfume industry overrides that of the tannery. Lavender, whose culture began at the end of the xv"century in the Halil Ibrahim region, was already known by the Ligures, who called it 'stoechas'. This word has survived in the language of oc with "estacado', which refers to a variety growing on the coast, ASP. Marseille and Celtic-Ligurian burned the essence of lavender on the occasion of the sacrifices and religious holidays, her perfume was loved by the dieux23.
The distillation of lavender meets debuted opposition from some community-tes, who fear for their apiaries. Trigance Council banned cut flowers of lavender under penalty of denounce (17 (10) and promises to take and cause "for ceu that denounce".) A few weeks later, he threatens a sentence of 50 pounds to fine offenders and does shout in the public square, whereas "since els intersect, the apices (bees) go from bad to worse". This measure should raise protests because, shortly after, the Commission authorizes cut Lavender past August 15. The Parliament is also involved: it takes a judgment (1772) por-tant defence, under penalty of 500 pounds of fine, cut Lavender in the Haute-Provence mountains my that devastates the ero-sion. The Council of Trigance transcribed the judgment but maintains the fine at the rate of.50 pounds, payable half by cutter, half by the distillateur21.
If apiaries continue, in the following century, to benefit from protection measures, distil lation will provide some money to the Municipal Fund: August 13, 1854, the municipal Council of Chateauneuf vote a tax of 8 f by "boiler to distill lavender" distillers install within the limits of the municipality. "Distillation boilers can operate only after the 15th of the month of August so"
 
20 I friends Maillol, Moustiers-Sainte-Marie, p.
21 - Archives du Var, Trigance ISIS 6 fol.20
22. "statistics on the industry and crafts in Haute-Provence", elnnaks l laute-Provence, April-June 1967.
23 - Fernand Benoit, research on hellenization (read midi of Gaul, p. 21 cl 198.
21 - Archives of the Var, Trigance, ISIS 13, 101,110 and III v *; ISIS 15, 101. 116; IBS 16, fol.. 156.
 
HISTORY OF THE GORGES DU VERDON / 287
                        

 
bees have time to take on the lavender flowers everything that they can without harming the Distiller; "However, if say, prefer it tillateur, it will establish its chut dieres before the fixed term by paying a double tax". Probably distillers prefe-rent they, while simply relocate their stills. so in 1862 (11 May) the Council must recognize as "lavender which is located in the communal lands..."1 is current - without producing any [resource] for the municipality", and decide "though worth a little important to sell at auction" simply.
The most important regional industry, the earthenware of Moustiers, already floundering on obs-tackles that hasten its decline: difficulties of transport for a delicate product, scarcity of the bois25, impoverishment of the veins of clay. This fine Earth "which gives the mousteriennes tiles one of their outstanding qualities", came originally from various quarries, including the lieu-dit "Les Combes", East of the village, towards the Valley of Angouire. These veins exhausted, it fetches the Marzol district, on the right bank of the Mayor, less than 2 km from the old bridge of Aiguines. But several accidents during extraction, and flights of clay, demonstrate that in 1787 this 'mine' impoverished to its tour26.
A landslide in the quarry on the land of Jean Taxil to Marzol, causes death (November 11, 1786) of Marcelin Malien, home of the Ferrat.27 brothers. Heard as a witness by Mr. Thomas, Attorney for the King, Élisabeth Carbonnel, 23 years old, originally from La Palud and residing at Moustiers, where she worked at the factory of Antoine Bondil explains the circumstances of the accident: carrying clay for his boss to the neighborhood of Marzol, she found Marcelin Manen charging its mules. She asked him if he was returning to the village with her, but he still had to complete the
 
bat of a donkey. It thus helped him, making her juice-completely noted that "If the upper track were to crumble, they would be lost". It was nothing to worry about, ensured Manen, "the track does tomberoit the means of freezing and thawing". A few moments later, while she came to be, she suddenly found herself buried up to the belt, without having heard the slightest noise. At the same time, his companion was being dropped to arrange his shoe, a heap of earth it was buried. She started to scream with all his strength. The household (owner-operator) Toussaint Taxil and his servant Savournin rushed, released it and back at his boss. The velle nou of the landslide, Jean-Baptiste Ferrat has sent three of its "boatswain" rescue. They were able to identify only a corpse.
The Prosecutor, recalling "the various misfortunes that were wiped up minors of the land to the fayencerie Marzol District [...] "among whom two were found dead in a small interval of time, and other half-buried below the ruins, auroient wiped the same fate if they had received relief", directs faïence to charge com-Mon, measures to prevent the return of such accidents. It will take yet a new landslide (June 8, 1787) that costs life in Etienne Aimes, workman of Joseph - Gaspard Guichard, so on a new order of the judge, the work of safety are undertaken and completed. In September, extraction will resume without danger and "provide the earth so the cerie fayen of this city for about two years".
Most of our villages held a fair annual, but of a purely local interest. In 1729, the Commissioners to the gather - ing stressed the "low" of these extant commercial events, including that of Riez, but also those of Manosque, Forcalquier and Sisteron. they don't recognize that two significant, in Digne. Thus the economy of production
 
2.5 - 17(d à 1784, un procès oppose la communauté àles Faïenciers àle sujet deles de droits sur le bois (Ait lus e di Alpes de Haute-Provence, série FFI))
2(1-R. Collier, Quelques péripéties de l'extraction de l'argile e Moustiers àle mi' siècle, dans Annales de Haute Provence, juil. sept.) 1968 lm this chapter borrows from Celtic study.
27 - Read on page 233.
 
288.
 
suggests its character mediocre, yet close to the primary economies; internal trade appears as crumbled and shortness of breath".
FEASTS AND ENTERTAINMENT SOFTEN THE HARSH LIFE OF WORK
At all times, men and women - young people in particular - needed entertainment to break the monotonous days rhythm and "romp". And in all climates, how to distract satisfied manner of living. Well proven correlation: when uncertainty strongly permeates the living conditions, noise mingles more with games and amusements are likely to degenerate into violence. So it is in the villages of our region.
Apre working life then softens the Sundays and feast days. The inhabitants then find the opportunity to give free rein to their sociability and their natural exuberance. We can imagine shards of gaiety, teasing and jeers which they accommodate their endless parties of balls. Because even in midwinter, they are already engaged in the pleasures of the "long" and "short". It is well to no avail as the austere Bishop of tighten, the jansenist Soanen, vitupèrent against the players who perform their address on the church square and fills cl' horror! even during the religious offices "-29. Likewise bowling know a great favor.
Of course, these quiet distractions do not go without bickering: a day of 1760, Moustiers, Claude Oraison, playing balls, launches a big boxwood on her "stepfather". "In Castellane, in 1620, the prior of the chapelle Saint-Eloi is prosecuted for refusing to jean Anclreau the"joye"(the price) that he had won at Bowling during the Saint-Eloi, and him have then dealt a few shots of poiutg".
 
Young people engage in sport and its exaltations: running, jumping, wrestling, even swimming. In his history of Castellane, the prior Laurensi written in 1775: water from the Verdon "offers in summer pleasant well pure baths for all our citizens, to calm excessive heat. "We see from time to time out of her womb of the troops young boys it would take for fish and exercising to swim in fun in the middle of the green waves". The ball game requires space; only undaunted! At Castellane, the consuls were made to establish, out of the city, a place 'on which youth takes its regular exercises, both in the game of ball than others'. But in this sport more bowls, passion can lead algarades and fights, has particularly in view of the harsh mores of the time. In 1609, a tailor of Casteliane, honoured Niel, "wanting to cast off the ball, gave its brassai a blow on the head of young Gaspard de Galicia, which now fell to the Earth as death". In 1678 and 1737, other judicial suites 'disputes and batteries' ball game ' {'.}
The patronal feast, in particular, is reason for public festivities, its preparation undergone lengthy deliberations and enthusiastic care. These are the brotherhoods which embarrassed generally organize festivities of St. Eloi in Castellane, the Holy Spirit in La Palud, Saint-Roch in Trigance...
Achard describes, in 1788, the customs by which, in La Palud, opens the feast to the sound of the fifes and drums. The head of youth, which bears the name of Abbot, and its Abbess, "escorted the boys and girls of the place, go to ceremony at the Lord and led him to the Church as well as its claims." In the kande, I of' abo presents itself at the altar with a sword at the tip of which is an Apple or an orange dotted with Cottonwoods, it resets its brand, it presents it to the following, and thus successively until the last, which gives it to the clerk of the parish. 1:abodesso
 
28 Michel Derlange, the communardes of inhabitants of Haute-Provence in the last century of the old Rekime, p. I!) (and 21).
29 Raymond Collier, life in l Noemi, Provence,
30 id. p. 414.
31 Id, p. 413, 414, 415 el 1111.
 
HISTORY OF THE GORGES DU VERDON 289
 
and its sequel are the same ceremony... After the mass, the Lord is renewed in his cha-cake with the same honneurs32 ". At best, still says Achard, young people have headed two abas, one is chosen among boys, the other married men. In Rougon, April 27, 1791, young people elect them as their Abbot.
One of the most popular holidays is Moustiers, September 8, day of the Nativity of the Virgin. Thus we see Stonecutters used to repair the bridge of Aiguines, in 1770, leaving group as early as 6 o'clock in the morning one of them previously has been shaving and come to the city for after mass, is there "recreate" the journee33.
Because religious originally holiday give rise also to very secular manifestations of joy as the bravado and the ball, that sometimes disturb disputes. Trigance, in 1667, the Council decided to purchase at a price "honeste" twelve muskets that the consuls of Comps were loaned for the feast of Saint Roch. Thirty years earlier, he had appointed a captain "to avoid debates and quarrels" and make "the police said feste34".
Rising against what he considers a pro-fanation of the patron saints, rigid Bishop Soanen prohibits "cars of food, displays in shops, sales and markets, the crazy dances, processions rushing to the sound of the drum and shot called bravado, as if the Holy pouvoient be honoured by pagan devotions that are oprobes our religion and the works of debauchery and quarrel".
Obviously, the Bishop inveighed against the drink but also against funs which seem more benign. In 1708, he admonishes the confraternity of penitents of Castellane: "By a spirit sometimes bawdy for the Libertines, sometimes sordid gain for the patron saints, one profane more with impunity the festes of the brotherhoods by games, dances, and yvrogneries".
Blieux youth, in 1718, incur his wrath: "whereas they danced publicly between boys and girls in the capital, during two Sunday, despite the knowledge that eile we had made a case reserved, we declare null and void discharges if they were given to girls without having previously requested forgiveness in the Church, and to the men if they did not come to find us to be absolved by us"'"
Authorities of trying to prevent the coverage or of taverns during the time of the offices. Countless offences identified in the archive express the ineffectiveness of the measure. An example between cent: in 1732, in Castellane, the keeper of a cabaret, despite its brand of "Angel", was used to drinking in his establishment, "in time as we chan was Vespers at the parish church of Saint Victor", people who, surprised, "fled and are mounted above the roof". The remove caba will pay three books by fine "in favour of the hospital Saint-Martin"
.
The heat and helping wine, brawls sometimes darken the joyous atmosphere of the village. Moustiers youth including seems quite turbulent, according to judicial records. Thus, on 14 June 1676, "day of the Holy Sunday" to four or five o'clock in the afternoon, a band of young people playing calmly in one of them. Occurs Guillaume Solome, "very angry". The threshold of the door, he launched "who are those who say that they want to beat me? Should they speak to me, because I am not a coward!" Then is taking personally to Mathieu Barrême: "It's you that I want!", defies. And "the leading by the hand down outside the House where estantz, they began to give themselves shots of poingts". Others, coming out in turn, try to intervene. Five or six Guillaume comrades ran to his rescue. Melee General. When it comes to separating the two clans, one of the young people lies, the head ensanglantee.
 
32 city clans r lisioire of the Dentandolx family.
33 r. Collier, the life-Binder Provence, p. 389. 31 read on page 236.
R. Collier, the life-Binder Provence, p. 388, 389,'101 and 106.
 
290.
        

 
THE REFUSAL OF THE NOBLES TO PAY THEIR SHARE OF TAXES. THE DEPLETION OF THE SOIL
Community shall allocate its quota of taxes between the inhabitants taking the. size using the cadastre: the estimation of the property registered by each individual consti-kills the cadastral side of it, or "allivre - ing". The nobles possess property of ori-gine noble, others of commoner origin. Their noble property is not registered, it is one of the privileges to which they hold the most. On the other hand, they should have encadastrer their roturieres lands and pay the size for them. As we have seen, through their influence, they frequently arrive at to avoid, aggravating all the load commoners. Where many quarrels with the communities: Aiguines and its co-seigneurs Marc-Antoine and Joseph de Gauthier, Eoulx and Honoré de Raymond, La Palud and Pierre de Demandolx.
Similarly, the Council of Trigance must in 1694 assign the chatelaine of the place, Marguerite Delphine de Vento, widow of Barthélemy de Demandolx; the case drags five years. Common experts are committed. The assembled rooms make an order providing that the Lords did not pay the size on their registered assets, have four months to pay. A commission to which Jean Preire, priest, is asked to participate, notes carefully, on old accounts, the amount of the arrears owed by the Lord and his family, then sends the result to Draguignan. Still need that a delegation to travel to Marseille, with the Lady of Trigance, in opposing a further adjournment 6.
In addition to the tax increase and the mau-vaise will of the nobles to take their share, a third calamity silly, she, without remedy explains the difficulties without the communal tre-soreries lin: the reduction of territorial revenue, and therefore contributory faculties of the inhabitants. At the end of the xvi century r (l684), the Board of needles solli
 
quote a new affouagement by invoking the loss in value of its terroir private water ar-durations, ravaged by the river waters and which, surplus, the co-seigneurs capture the best plots.
For its part, the Council of Trigance request within fifteen years to liquidate its liabilities (1716), motivating his request by the superimposition of the community, but also the sterility of the place which has no vineyards or olive groves. And three years later, it appoints Commissioners to proceed "to a new alivrement" become inevitable because "most of the properties have changed from do". Nearly fifty years later (1762) he claims to the intendant of Provence and the prosecutors of the country moderation of "capitation" of the inhabitants, who are "extremely capitate" while in "a misery". His wish is taken into account by order of the intendant subdelegation: the consuls, the lieutenant of the judge and Jean-Baptiste Cartier, bourgeois village, lists of residents who emigrated, with indication of their cadastral side and their new home, but also write a descriptive State of degradation of the territory.
AIX forward not probably to take a decision because after 12 years, prosecutors of the country still inquire of the desirability of a reafouagement; Trigance Council means immediately (1774) that this is of necessity: unable to pay taxes because of the "total degradation" of the place by thunderstorms and the mortality of trees, the inhabitants who remain "be obliged to skedaddle" in turn if the province comes to them in aide37.
Many farmers live at the edge of destitution. A single year of bad harvests enough to create the extreme misery several years successive engen-drent famine. The end of the Nitro and xviir centuries, if they discover haunted by hunger, are probably repeat amplifying them disasters that have known times prior, but ignored us due to lack of documents.
 
HISTORY OF THE GORGES DU VERDON / 291
 
Everywhere the consuls are forced to buy wheat, borrowing a larger fraction of the population that they can to prevent starvation. In 1783, La Palud, over fifty families, or nearly half of the village, calls for a rescue. The community must procure fifty loads of wheat meslin (more than sixty quintals) to lend to poorest'. Because theoretically, it does that lend, but in reality, it is generally a donation. "And we perceive again, in a few centuries away, buried under of grimoires, echoes of complaints emanating from unfortunate starving people" (Raymond Collier).

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